Expression of alpha 2 adrenoceptors during rat brain development--I. Alpha 2A messenger RNA expression.
ABSTRACT The distribution of alpha 2A adrenoceptor messenger RNA expression in developing rat brain was characterized using in situ hybridization with 35S-labeled riboprobes. Intense hybridization signal was detected as early as embryonic day 14 in several areas adjacent to the forebrain and hindbrain germinal zones and in central noradrenergic neurons. A marked increase in messenger RNA expression was observed throughout the brain during late prenatal development, consistent with the migration and maturation of neurons in developing brain structures. In embryonic brain, there was a temporal and spatial correspondence in the appearance of alpha 2A messenger RNA expression and binding sites labeled with [3H]idazoxan or p-[125I]iodoclonidine, indicating translation into receptor protein at an early stage of development. Whereas the presynaptic expression remained constant throughout development, there was an early postnatal decline of alpha 2A receptor expression in many brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, cortex, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus and medulla. Thereafter, messenger RNA expression increased, establishing an adult-like pattern during the second postnatal week, but remained low in areas such as the caudate-putamen, thalamus and hippocampus, which do not exhibit extensive expression in the adult. The transient perinatal expression of this alpha 2 adrenoceptor type, which coincides with a period of hyperreactivity to sensory stimuli in the locus coeruleus, may indicate a specific functional role for the alpha 2A receptor in the developing rat brain. The early and intense expression in olfactory structures suggests an involvement in early olfactory learning. The pattern of widespread, transient expression of alpha 2A receptors in the fetal brain is in marked contrast to the postnatal development of the alpha 2C receptor type.
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ABSTRACT: Early odor preference training in rat pups produces behavioral preferences that last from hours to lifetimes. Here, we discuss the molecular and circuitry changes we have observed in the olfactory bulb (OB) and in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) following odor training. For normal preference learning, both structures are necessary, but learned behavior can be initiated by initiating local circuit change in either structure. Our evidence relates dynamic molecular and circuit changes to memory duration and storage localization. Results using this developmental model are consistent with biological memory theories implicating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and β-adrenoceptors, and their associated cascades, in memory induction and consolidation. Finally, our examination of the odor preference model reveals a primary role for increases in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor synaptic strength, and in network strength, in the creation and maintenance of preference memory in both olfactory structures.Progress in brain research 01/2014; 208:115-56. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-63350-7.00005-X · 5.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian main olfactory bulb (MOB) receives a dense noradrenergic innervation from the pontine nucleus locus coeruleus that is important for neonatal odor preference learning and odor processing in mature animals. Modulation of GABAergic granule cells (GCs) is thought to play a key role in the net functional impact of norepinephrine (NE) release in the MOB, yet there are few direct studies of the influence of NE on these cells. In the present study we investigated noradrenergic modulation of GC excitability using electrophysiological approaches in rat MOB slices. A moderate concentration of NE (10 microM) and the alpha1 receptor agonist phenylephrine (10 microM) depolarized and increased spontaneous or current injection-evoked spiking in GCs. By contrast, low NE concentrations (0.1-1.0 microM) or the alpha2 receptor agonist clonidine (Clon, 10 microM) hyperpolarized and decreased the discharge of GCs. The effects of NE (10 microM) were blocked by antagonism of alpha1 and alpha2 receptors. Inhibitory effects of low NE concentrations were blocked or converted to excitatory responses by alpha2 receptor blockade, whereas excitatory effects of the moderate NE concentration were converted to inhibitory responses after alpha1 receptor blockade. NE (10 microM) and phenylephrine elicited inward currents that reversed near the potassium equilibrium potential. The effects of NE and phenylephrine were associated with increased membrane input resistance. Clonidine elicited an outward current associated with decreased membrane input resistance that reversed near the potassium equilibrium potential. These results indicate that alpha1 and alpha2 receptor activation exert opposing effects on GC excitability. Low concentrations of NE acting via alpha2 receptors suppress GC excitability, while higher concentrations of NE acting at alpha1 receptors increase GC excitability. These findings are consistent with recent findings that alpha1 and alpha2 receptor activation increase and decrease, respectively, GABAergic inhibition of mitral cells. The differential affinities of alpha1 and alpha2 noradrenergic receptor subtypes may allow for differential modulation of GABA release and olfactory processing as a function of the level of NE release, which in turn, is regulated by behavioral state.Neuroscience 05/2010; 169(2):882-92. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.05.010 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical and chemical signaling at these synapses may be involved in early odor preference learning. To investigate this possibility, we combined electrophysiological recordings with calcium imaging in olfactory bulb slices prepared from neonatal rats and mice. Activation of ON-MC synapses induced postsynaptic potentials, which were associated with large postsynaptic calcium transients. Neither electrical nor calcium responses were affected by beta-adrenergic agonists or antagonist. Immunocytochemical analysis of MCs and their tufted dendrites revealed clear immunoreactivity with antibodies against alpha1A (Cav2.1, P/Q-type) and alpha1B (Cav2.2, N-type), but not against alpha1C (Cav1.2, L-type) or alpha1D (Cav1.3, L-type) calcium channel subunits. Moreover, nimodipine, a blocker of L-type calcium channels, had no effect on either electrical or calcium signaling at ON-MC synapses. In contrast to previous evidence, we concluded that in neonatal rats and mice (P5-P8), mitral cells do not express significant amounts of L-type calcium channels, the calcium channel type that is often targeted by beta-adrenergic modulation. The absence of beta-adrenergic modulation on either electrical or calcium signaling at ON-MC synapses of neonatal rats and mice excludes the involvement of this mechanism in early odor preference learning.Learning & Memory 01/2004; 11(4):406-11. DOI:10.1101/lm.75204 · 4.38 Impact Factor