The use of transplanted glial cells to reconstruct glial environments in the CNS.
ABSTRACT Transplantation studies have demonstrated that glia-depleted areas of the CNS can be reconstituted by the introduction of cultured cells. Thus, the influx of Schwann cells into glia-free areas of demyelination in the spinal cord can be prevented by the combined introduction of astrocytes and cells of the O-2A lineage. Although Schwann cell invasion of areas of demyelination is associated with destruction of astrocytes, the transplantation of rat tissue culture astrocytes ("type-1") alone cannot suppress this invasion, indicating a role for cells of the O-2A lineage in reconstruction of glial environments. By transplanting different glial cell preparations and manipulating lesions so as to prevent meningeal cell and Schwann cell proliferation it is possible to demonstrate that the behaviour of tissue culture astrocytes ("type-1") and astrocytes derived from O-2A progenitor cells ("type-2") is different. In the presence of meningeal cells, tissue culture astrocytes clump together to form cords of cells. In contrast, type-2 astrocytes spread throughout glia-free areas in a manner unaffected by the presence of meningeal cells or Schwann cells. Thus, progenitor-derived astrocytes show a greater ability to fill glia-free areas than tissue culture astrocytes. Similarly, when introduced into infarcted white matter in the spinal cord, progenitor-derived astrocytes fill the malacic area more effectively than tissue culture astrocytes, although axons do not regenerate into the reconstituted area.
- 05/2007: pages 329-353;
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ABSTRACT: Over the last few years the therapeutic approach to demyelinating diseases has radically changed, strategies having been developed aimed at partnering the classic symptomatic treatments with the most advanced regenerative medicine tools. At first, the transplantation of myelinogenic cells, Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes was suggested, but the considerable technical difficulties, (poor availability, difficulties in harvesting and culturing, and the problem of rejection in the event of non-autologous sources), shifted attention towards more versatile cellular types, such as Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). Recent studies have already demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that glially-primed MSCs (through exposure to chemical cocktails) have myelogenic abilities. In spite of a large number of papers on glially-differentiated MSCs, little is known about the ability of undifferentiated MSCs to myelinate axons and processes. Here we have demonstrated that also undifferentiated MSCs have the ability to myelinate, since they induce the myelination of rat DRG neuron processes after direct co-culturing. In this process a pivotal role is performed by the p75 receptor.Experimental Cell Research 08/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor