The use of transplanted glial cells to reconstruct glial environments in the CNS.
ABSTRACT Transplantation studies have demonstrated that glia-depleted areas of the CNS can be reconstituted by the introduction of cultured cells. Thus, the influx of Schwann cells into glia-free areas of demyelination in the spinal cord can be prevented by the combined introduction of astrocytes and cells of the O-2A lineage. Although Schwann cell invasion of areas of demyelination is associated with destruction of astrocytes, the transplantation of rat tissue culture astrocytes ("type-1") alone cannot suppress this invasion, indicating a role for cells of the O-2A lineage in reconstruction of glial environments. By transplanting different glial cell preparations and manipulating lesions so as to prevent meningeal cell and Schwann cell proliferation it is possible to demonstrate that the behaviour of tissue culture astrocytes ("type-1") and astrocytes derived from O-2A progenitor cells ("type-2") is different. In the presence of meningeal cells, tissue culture astrocytes clump together to form cords of cells. In contrast, type-2 astrocytes spread throughout glia-free areas in a manner unaffected by the presence of meningeal cells or Schwann cells. Thus, progenitor-derived astrocytes show a greater ability to fill glia-free areas than tissue culture astrocytes. Similarly, when introduced into infarcted white matter in the spinal cord, progenitor-derived astrocytes fill the malacic area more effectively than tissue culture astrocytes, although axons do not regenerate into the reconstituted area.
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ABSTRACT: Over the last few years the therapeutic approach to demyelinating diseases has radically changed, strategies having been developed aimed at partnering the classic symptomatic treatments with the most advanced regenerative medicine tools. At first, the transplantation of myelinogenic cells, Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes was suggested, but the considerable technical difficulties, (poor availability, difficulties in harvesting and culturing, and the problem of rejection in the event of non-autologous sources), shifted attention towards more versatile cellular types, such as Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). Recent studies have already demonstrate both in vitro and in vivo that glially-primed MSCs (through exposure to chemical cocktails) have myelogenic abilities. In spite of a large number of papers on glially-differentiated MSCs, little is known about the ability of undifferentiated MSCs to myelinate axons and processes. Here we have demonstrated that also undifferentiated MSCs have the ability to myelinate, since they induce the myelination of rat DRG neuron processes after direct co-culturing. In this process a pivotal role is performed by the p75 receptor.Experimental Cell Research 08/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two types of interventions to remyelinate the adult demyelinated central nervous system were investigated in heterozygous transgenic mice overexpressing the proteolipid protein gene. 1) A cocktail of trophic factors, "TS1," was directed toward the activation of the endogenous pool of neural progenitors to increase the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes (OL) in the brain. 2) A combinatorial approach in which OL progenitors were coinjected with TS1 into the corpus callosum of wild-type and He4e transgenic mice that displayed hindlimb paralysis. The levels of locomotor ability in these mice were evaluated after a single treatment. The data showed that a single administration of either one of the interventions had similar therapeutic effects, alleviating the symptoms of demyelination and leading to the recovery of hindlimb function. Histological and immunofluorescent examination of brain sections showed extensive remyelination that was sufficient to reverse hindlimb paralysis in transgenic mice. When the interventions were administered prior to hindlimb paralysis, He4e mice were able to walk up to 1 year of age without paralysis.Journal of Neuroscience Research 06/2010; 88(8):1682-94. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell transplant therapies are currently under active consideration for a number of degenerative diseases. In the immune-mediated demyelinating-neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS), only the myelin sheaths of the CNS are lost, while Schwann cell myelin of the PNS remains normal. This, and the finding that Schwann cells can myelinate CNS axons, has focussed interest on Schwann cell transplants to repair myelin in MS. However, the experimental use of these cells for myelin repair in animal models has revealed a number of problems relating to the incompatibility between peripheral glial cells and the CNS glial environment. Here, we have tested whether these difficulties can be avoided by using an earlier stage of the Schwann cell lineage, the Schwann cell precursor (SCP). For direct comparison of these two cell types, we implanted Schwann cells from post-natal rat nerves and SCPs from embryo day 14 (E14) rat nerves into the CNS under various experimental conditions. Examination 1 and 2 months later showed that in the presence of naked CNS axons, both types of cell form myelin that antigenically and ultrastructurally resembles that formed by Schwann cells in peripheral nerves. In terms of every other parameter we studied, however, the cells in these two implants behaved remarkably differently. As expected from previous work, Schwann cell implants survive poorly unless the cells find axons to myelinate, the cells do not migrate significantly from the implantation site, fail to integrate with host oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, and form little myelin when challenged with astrocyte-rich environment in the retina. Following SCP implantation, on the other hand, the cells survive well, migrate through normal CNS tissue, interface smoothly and intimately with host glial cells and myelinate extensively among the astrocytes of the retina. Furthermore, when implanted at a distance from a demyelinated lesion, SCPs but not Schwann cells migrate through normal CNS tissue to reach the lesion and generate new myelin. These features of SCP implants are all likely to be helpful attributes for a myelin repair cell. Since these cells also form Schwann cell myelin that is arguably likely to be resistant to MS pathology, they share some of the main advantages of Schwann cells without suffering from the disadvantages that render Schwann cells less than ideal candidates for transplantation into MS lesions.Brain 09/2007; 130(Pt 8):2175-85. · 9.92 Impact Factor