The Molecular Basis of Focal Cyst Formation in Human Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Type I

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 01/1997; 87(6):979-87. DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81793-6
Source: PubMed


Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common disease and an important cause of renal failure. It is characterized by considerable intrafamilial phenotypic variation and focal cyst formation. To elucidate the molecular basis for these observations, we have developed a novel method for isolating renal cystic epithelia from single cysts and have used it to show that individual renal cysts in ADPKD are monoclonal. Loss of heterozygosity was discovered within a subset of cysts for two closely linked polymorphic markers located within the PKD1 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that it was the normal haplotype that was lost. This study provides a molecular explanation for the focal nature of cyst formation and a probable mechanism whereby mutations cause disease. The high rate at which "second hits" must occur to account for the large number of cysts observed suggests that unique structural features of the PKD1 gene may be responsible for its mutability.

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    • "OPG was also found on the luminal side on non-cystic CKD tubules. In ADPKD cyst formation starts during renal development [65], [66] and progresses continuously in adulthood. PKD protein-positive exosomes have been characterized, [67] showing that some key proteins are shed in membrane particles in the urine. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary exosomes have been proposed as potential diagnostic tools. TNF superfamily cytokines and receptors may be present in exosomes and are expressed by proximal tubular cells. We have now studied the expression of selected TNF superfamily proteins in exosome-like vesicles from cultured human proximal tubular cells and human urine and have identified additional proteins in these vesicles by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Human proximal tubular cells constitutively released exosome-like vesicles that did not contain the TNF superfamily cytokines TRAIL or TWEAK. However, exosome-like vesicles contained osteoprotegerin (OPG), a TNF receptor superfamily protein, as assessed by Western blot, ELISA or selected reaction monitoring by nLC-(QQQ)MS/MS. Twenty-one additional proteins were identified in tubular cell exosome-like vesicles, including one (vitamin D binding protein) that had not been previously reported in exosome-like vesicles. Twelve were extracellular matrix proteins, including the basement membrane proteins type IV collagen, nidogen-1, agrin and fibulin-1. Urine from chronic kidney disease patients contained a higher amount of exosomal protein and exosomal OPG than urine from healthy volunteers. Specifically OPG was increased in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease urinary exosome-like vesicles and expressed by cystic epithelium in vivo. In conclusion, OPG is present in exosome-like vesicles secreted by proximal tubular epithelial cells and isolated from Chronic Kidney Disease urine.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72387. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072387 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In global knockout mice it is difficult to differentiate between indirect extra-renal abnormalities due to the effects of the complex metabolic alterations caused by renal cystic disease from direct effects caused by loss of Pkd1 functions in affected tissues. In addition, in humans, ADPKD is a heterozygous state, whereby mutations leading to loss of one PKD1 or PKD2 allele is combined with somatic mutations in the kidney (i.e., a second hit) to cause renal cystic disease [20], [21], [22], [23], [24]. The resulting residual function of the non-mutated PKD1 or PKD2 allele in extra-renal tissues may also mask discovery of PKD1 or PKD2 functions in non-renal tissues. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conditional deletion of Pkd1 in osteoblasts using either Osteocalcin(Oc)-Cre or Dmp1-Cre results in defective osteoblast-mediated postnatal bone formation and osteopenia. Pkd1 is also expressed in undifferentiated mesenchyme that gives rise to the osteoblast lineage. To examine the effects of Pkd1 on prenatal osteoblast development, we crossed Pkd1(flox/flox) and Col1a1(3.6)-Cre mice, which has been used to achieve selective inactivation of Pkd1 earlier in the osteoblast lineage. Control Pkd1(flox/flox) and Pkd1(flox/+), heterozygous Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/+) and Pkd1(flox/null), and homozygous Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox) and Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/null) mice were analyzed at ages ranging from E14.5 to 8-weeks-old. Newborn Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/null) mice exhibited defective skeletogenesis in association with a greater reduction in Pkd1 expression in bone. Conditional Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/+) and Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox) mice displayed a gene dose-dependent decrease in bone formation and increase in marrow fat at 6 weeks of age. Bone marrow stromal cell and primary osteoblast cultures from homozygous Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox) mice showed increased proliferation, impaired osteoblast development and enhanced adipogenesis ex vivo. Unexpectedly, we found evidence for Col1a1(3.6)-Cre mediated deletion of Pkd1 in extraskeletal tissues in Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox) mice. Deletion of Pkd1 in mesenchymal precursors resulted in pancreatic and renal, but not hepatic, cyst formation. The non-lethality of Col1a1(3.6)-Cre;Pkd1(flox/flox) mice establishes a new model to study abnormalities in bone development and cyst formation in pancreas and kidney caused by Pkd1 gene inactivation.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e46038. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046038 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Here, we demonstrate that upon Pkd1 inactivation or expression of a PC2 pathogenic mutant, mimicking ADPKD, inhibition of the stretch sensitivity of SAKs is deleterious and contributes to increased tubular apoptosis. In ADPKD a ''two hit'' mechanism was put forward to explain focal cystogenesis, slow progression of the disease, and the interfamily phenotypic variability (Qian et al., 1996; Wu et al., 1998). However, several observations also suggest that an additional dosage mechanism may be at play in the disease (Lantinga-van Leeuwen et al., 2004; Pei, 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: How renal epithelial cells respond to increased pressure and the link with kidney disease states remain poorly understood. Pkd1 knockout or expression of a PC2 pathogenic mutant, mimicking the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, dramatically enhances mechanical stress-induced tubular apoptotic cell death. We show the presence of a stretch-activated K+ channel dependent on the TREK-2 K2P subunit in proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells. Our findings further demonstrate that polycystins protect renal epithelial cells against apoptosis in response to mechanical stress, and this function is mediated through the opening of stretch-activated K2P channels. Thus, to our knowledge, we establish for the first time, both in vitro and in vivo, a functional relationship between mechanotransduction and mechanoprotection. We propose that this mechanismis at play in other important pathologies associated with apoptosis and in which pressure or flow stimulation is altered, including heart failure or atherosclerosis.
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