Intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist promoter: cell type-specific and inducible regulatory regions.
ABSTRACT The objective of these studies was to examine the molecular mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation of the gene for the intracellular structural variant of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (icIL-1Ra) molecule. By reverse transcription-PCR analysis, constitutive expression of endogenous icIL-1Ra mRNA was observed in the epithelial cell lines A431 and HT-29, but not in the macrophage cell lines RAW 264.7 and U937, or in the lymphocyte cell lines Raji and Jurkat. However, icIL-1Ra mRNA expression was observed in response to stimulation with LPS in RAW 264.7 cells and to PMA and LPS in U937 cells. To examine the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, 4.5 kb of the 5' flanking sequence was isolated from the human icIL-1Ra gene, sequenced, cloned into a luciferase expression vector (pIC4525.Luc), and examined in transfection studies. The pIC4525.Luc construct exhibited a pattern of expression in epithelial and macrophage cell lines similar to that of the endogenous icIL-1Ra gene. To obtain a generalized map of cell type-specific and inducible cis-acting DNA elements, nested 5' deletional mutants of the icIL-1Ra promoter were constructed. Results from transfection studies with these icIL-1Ra promoter/luciferase fusion constructs indicated that constitutive expression in epithelial cells was under the control of three positively acting regions located between bases -4525 to -1438, -288 to -156, and -156 to -49. In contrast, basal expression of pIC4525.Luc in transfected but unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells was under the control of a weak inhibitory region located between bases -4525 to -1438 and a strong positive element between -156 and -49. LPS induction of icIL-1Ra transcription in RAW 264.7 cells was regulated by strong positively acting DNA regions between bases -1438 to -909 and -156 to -49. In summary, the proximal region of the icIL-1Ra promoter, between bases -156 to -49, contains positive cis-acting elements that are needed for expression in both epithelial and monocyte cell lines. However, our results indicate that the ability of this proximal promoter region to control expression is strongly influenced, both positively and negatively, by other upstream cis-acting elements in a cell type-specific manner.
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ABSTRACT: IL-1 family cytokines are key mediators of inflammatory response. Excessive production of these cytokines by keratinocytes has been implicated in inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin diseases. Given the immunosuppressive role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and its clinical application in treatment of psoriasis, we investigated the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the expression of IL-1alpha, intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist (icIL-1Ra), and IL-18 in mouse primary keratinocytes. Treatment of keratinocytes with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the expression of IL-1alpha and icIL-1Ra and decreased the expression of IL-18 in dose- and time-dependent manners. The magnitude of icIL-1Ra induction was much greater than that of IL-1alpha so that the ratio of icIL-1Ra to IL-1alpha was markedly increased, leading to repression of IL-1 activity. The regulation of these three cytokines by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was mediated by vitamin D receptor (VDR), as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) had no effect in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes, whereas the effect was restored in cells derived from VDR(-/-) mice expressing human VDR. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) appeared to use different mechanisms to regulate the biosynthesis of IL-1alpha and icIL-1Ra: it increased IL-1alpha mRNA stability whereas it enhanced icIL-1Ra gene transcription. The basal IL-18 expression and activity were much higher in VDR(-/-) keratinocytes and skin, underscoring the importance of the repressive role of vitamin D in IL-18 production. Similar regulation of these cytokines was also seen in primary human keratinocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that vitamin D modulates cutaneous inflammatory reactions, at least in part, by increasing the IL-1Ra to IL-1alpha ratio and suppressing IL-18 synthesis in keratinocytes.The Journal of Immunology 04/2006; 176(6):3780-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Scrapie (SC) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in sheep and goats. Susceptibility to this neurodegenerative disease is controlled mainly by point mutations at the PRNP locus. Other genes, apart from PRNP, have been reported to modulate resistance/susceptibility to SC. On the basis of several studies on Alzheimer's disease and different TSE models, and of requirement for correct homeostasis of cytokines in brain, IL1B and IL1RN were chosen as putative positional and functional candidate genes that might be involved in the polygenic variance mentioned above. In the present work, ovine IL1B and IL1RN genes were partially isolated and characterized, including promoter and other regulatory regions. In addition, several sequence polymorphisms were identified. Furthermore, their cytogenetic positions on sheep chromosomes were determined by FISH and confirmed by linkage analysis, localizing both genes in OAR3p22, a region previously described as carrying a QTL for SC incubation period in sheep. Finally, expression analyses were carried out in eight naturally SC-infected and five uninfected sheep with the same genotype for PRNP (ARQ/ARQ). This comparison was performed using real-time RT-PCR in samples of spleen and cerebellum. Results showed differences in the expression of both cytokines in cerebellum (p < 0.05) but not in spleen (p > 0.05).Mammalian Genome 02/2007; 18(1):53-63. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of acute phase reactant proteins such as plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) are likely influenced by multiple genes regulating the innate immune response. We screened a set of 16 inflammation-related genes for association with CRP in a large population-based study of healthy young adults (n=1627). Results were validated in 2 independent studies (n=1208 and n=4310), including a pooled analysis of all 3 studies. In the pooled analysis, the minor allele of IL1RN 1018 (rs4251961) within the gene encoding interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was significantly associated with higher mean plasma log(CRP) level (P<1 x 10(-4)). The same IL1RN 1018 allele was associated with higher mean plasma log(IL-6) levels (P=0.004). In the pooled analysis, the minor allele of IL1RN 13888 (rs2232354) was associated with higher fibrinogen, (P=0.001). The IL1RN 1018 and 13888 variant alleles tag a clade of IL1RN haplotypes linked to allele 1 of an 86-bp VNTR polymorphism. We confirmed that the IL1RN 1018 variant (rs4251961) was associated with decreased cellular IL-1RA production ex vivo. Common functional polymorphisms of the IL1RN gene are associated with several markers of systemic inflammation.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2008; 28(7):1407-12. · 6.34 Impact Factor