The dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 and -2 are induced by the p42/p44MAPK cascade.
ABSTRACT Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and MKP-2 are two members of a recently described family of dual specificity phosphatases that are capable of dephosphorylating p42/p44MAPK. Overexpression of MKP-1 or MKP-2 inhibits MAP kinase-dependent intracellular signaling events and fibroblast proliferation. By using specific antibodies that recognize endogenous MKP-1 and MKP-2 in CCL39 cells, we show that MKP-1 and MKP-2 are not expressed in quiescent cells, but are rapidly induced following serum addition, with protein detectable as early as 30 min (MKP-1) or 60 min (MKP-2). Serum induction of MKP-1 and MKP-2 is sustained, with protein detectable up to 14 h after serum addition. Induction of MKP-1 and, to a lesser extent, MKP-2 temporally correlates with p42/p44MAPK inactivation. To analyze the contribution of the MAP kinase cascade to MKP-1 and MKP-2 induction, we examined CCL39 cells transformed with either v-ras or a constitutively active direct upstream activator of MAP kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MKK-1; MKK-1(SD/SD) mutant). In both cell models, MKP-1 and MKP-2 are constitutively expressed, with MKP-2 being prevalent. In addition, in CCL39 cells expressing an estradiol-inducible deltaRaf-1::ER chimera, activation of Raf alone is sufficient to induce MKP-1 and MKP-2. The role of the MAP kinase cascade in MKP induction was highlighted by the MKK-1 inhibitor PD 098059, which blunted both the activation of p42/p44MAPK and the induction of MKP-1 and MKP-2. However, the MAP kinase cascade is not absolutely required for the induction of MKP-1, as this phosphatase, but not MKP-2, was induced to detectable levels by agents that stimulate protein kinases A and C. Thus, activation of the p42/p44MAPK cascade promotes the induction of MKP-1 and MKP-2, which may then attenuate p42/p44MAPK-dependent events in an inhibitory feedback loop.
SourceAvailable from: Gaetano Santulli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CaMKs are a widely distributed family of kinases with multiple and often cell specific effects on intracellular signal transduction pathway. In endothelial cells, it has been recognized a role for CamKII in several pathways such as eNOS activation and nitric oxide production. It is not clear though, whether CaMKII interfere with other endothelial cell functions such as ERK activation and cell proliferation. We explored this issue in primary cultured rat endothelial cells and we evaluated the effect on endothelial cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. CaMKII inhibition through Cantide, conducted into the cell through Antoennapedia (ANT-CN), showed positive effects on proliferation and H(3)-thimdine incorporation similar to insulin stimulation. Accordingly, both CaMKII pharmacological inhibition and silencing through shRNA produced activation of the p44/42 MAPK. These observations leaded to the hypothesis that CamKII could regulate p44/p42 by interfering with specific ERK phosphatases. Indeed, we found that CaMKII interacts and protect the dual specific phosphatase MKP-1 from proteasome mediated degradation while this complex is disrupted by CaMKII inhibitors. This study reveals that CaMKII, besides phosphorylation through the known ras-raf-mek pathway, can regulate also dephosphorylation of p44/p42 by modulation of MKP-1 level. This novel finding opens to a novel scenario in regulation of endothelial cell functions.Cellular Signalling 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.06.009 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cause neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), a disease characterized by the formation of cutaneous neurofibromas infiltrated with a high density of degranulating mast cells. A hallmark of cell lines generated from NF1 patients or Nf1-deficient mice is their propensity to hyperproliferate. Neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1, negatively regulates p21(ras) activity by accelerating the conversion of Ras-GTP to Ras-GDP. However, identification of alterations in specific p21(ras) effector pathways that control proliferation in NF1-deficient cells is incomplete and critical for understanding disease pathogenesis. Recent studies have suggested that the proliferative effects of p21(ras) may depend on signaling outputs from the small Rho GTPases, Rac and Rho, but the physiologic importance of these interactions in an animal disease model has not been established. Using a genetic intercross between Nf1(+/)- and Rac2(-)(/)- mice, we now provide genetic evidence to support a biochemical model where hyperactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) via the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, directly contributes to the hyperproliferation of Nf1-deficient mast cells in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrate that Rac2 functions as mediator of cross-talk between phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) and the classical p21(ras)-Raf-Mek-ERK pathway to confer a distinct proliferative advantage to Nf1(+/)- mast cells. Thus, these studies identify Rac2 as a novel mediator of cross-talk between PI-3K and the p21(ras)-ERK pathway which functions to alter the cellular phenotype of a cell lineage involved in the pathologic complications of a common genetic disease.Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/2001; 194(1):57-69. · 13.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis larval development and metamorphosis require a complex interplay of events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, MAP kinases (ERK, JNK) and caspase-3 activation. We have previously shown that NO levels affect the rate of metamorphosis, regulate caspase activity and promote an oxidative stress pathway, resulting in protein nitration. Here, we report that NO down-regulates MAP kinase phosphatases (mkps) expression affecting positively ERK signaling. By pharmacological approach, we observed that the reduction of endogenous NO levels caused a decrease of ERK phosphorylation, whereas increasing levels of NO induced ERK activation. We have also identified the ERK gene network affected by NO, including mpk1, mpk3 and some key developmental genes by quantitative gene expression analysis. We demonstrate that NO induces an ERK-independent down-regulation of mkp1 and mkp3, responsible for maintaining the ERK phosphorylation levels necessary for transcription of key metamorphic genes, such as the hormone receptor rev-erb and the van willebrand protein vwa1c. These results add new insights into the role played by NO during larval development and metamorphosis in Ciona, highlighting the cross-talk between different signaling pathways.PLoS ONE 07/2014; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102907 · 3.53 Impact Factor