The dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 and -2 are induced by the p42/p44(MAPK) cascade
ABSTRACT Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and MKP-2 are two members of a recently described family of dual specificity phosphatases that are capable of dephosphorylating p42/p44MAPK. Overexpression of MKP-1 or MKP-2 inhibits MAP kinase-dependent intracellular signaling events and fibroblast proliferation. By using specific antibodies that recognize endogenous MKP-1 and MKP-2 in CCL39 cells, we show that MKP-1 and MKP-2 are not expressed in quiescent cells, but are rapidly induced following serum addition, with protein detectable as early as 30 min (MKP-1) or 60 min (MKP-2). Serum induction of MKP-1 and MKP-2 is sustained, with protein detectable up to 14 h after serum addition. Induction of MKP-1 and, to a lesser extent, MKP-2 temporally correlates with p42/p44MAPK inactivation. To analyze the contribution of the MAP kinase cascade to MKP-1 and MKP-2 induction, we examined CCL39 cells transformed with either v-ras or a constitutively active direct upstream activator of MAP kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MKK-1; MKK-1(SD/SD) mutant). In both cell models, MKP-1 and MKP-2 are constitutively expressed, with MKP-2 being prevalent. In addition, in CCL39 cells expressing an estradiol-inducible deltaRaf-1::ER chimera, activation of Raf alone is sufficient to induce MKP-1 and MKP-2. The role of the MAP kinase cascade in MKP induction was highlighted by the MKK-1 inhibitor PD 098059, which blunted both the activation of p42/p44MAPK and the induction of MKP-1 and MKP-2. However, the MAP kinase cascade is not absolutely required for the induction of MKP-1, as this phosphatase, but not MKP-2, was induced to detectable levels by agents that stimulate protein kinases A and C. Thus, activation of the p42/p44MAPK cascade promotes the induction of MKP-1 and MKP-2, which may then attenuate p42/p44MAPK-dependent events in an inhibitory feedback loop.
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ABSTRACT: Here, we have investigated the role of the Notch pathway in the generation and maintenance of Kras(G12V)-driven non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). We demonstrate by genetic means that γ-secretase and RBPJ are essential for the formation of NSCLCs. Of importance, pharmacologic treatment of mice carrying autochthonous NSCLCs with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) blocks cancer growth. Treated carcinomas present reduced HES1 levels and reduced phosphorylated ERK without changes in phosphorylated MEK. Mechanistically, we show that HES1 directly binds to and represses the promoter of DUSP1, encoding a dual phosphatase that is active against phospho-ERK. Accordingly, GSI treatment upregulates DUSP1 and decreases phospho-ERK. These data provide proof of the in vivo therapeutic potential of GSIs in primary NSCLCs.Cancer cell 08/2012; 22(2):222-34. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.06.014 · 23.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key regulators of cellular physiology and immune responses, and abnormalities in MAPKs are implicated in many diseases. MAPKs are activated by MAPK kinases through phosphorylation of the threonine and tyrosine residues in the conserved Thr-Xaa-Tyr domain, where Xaa represents amino acid residues characteristic of distinct MAPK subfamilies. Since MAPKs play a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes, a delicate regulatory network has evolved to control their activities. Over the past two decades, a group of dual specificity MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) has been identified that deactivates MAPKs. Since MAPKs can enhance MKP activities, MKPs are considered as an important feedback control mechanism that limits the MAPK cascades. This review outlines the role of MKP-1, a prototypical MKP family member, in physiology and disease. We will first discuss the basic biochemistry and regulation of MKP-1. Next, we will present the current consensus on the immunological and physiological functions of MKP-1 in infectious, inflammatory, metabolic, and nervous system diseases as revealed by studies using animal models. We will also discuss the emerging evidence implicating MKP-1 in human disorders. Finally, we will conclude with a discussion of the potential for pharmacomodulation of MKP-1 expression.Life sciences 12/2011; 90(7-8):237-48. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2011.11.017 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activation of ErbB receptors by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or heregulin (HRG) determines distinct cell-fate decisions, although signals propagate through shared pathways. Using mathematical modeling and experimental approaches, we unravel how HRG and EGF generate distinct, all-or-none responses of the phosphorylated transcription factor c-Fos. In the cytosol, EGF induces transient and HRG induces sustained ERK activation. In the nucleus, however, ERK activity and c-fos mRNA expression are transient for both ligands. Knockdown of dual-specificity phosphatases extends HRG-stimulated nuclear ERK activation, but not c-fos mRNA expression, implying the existence of a HRG-induced repressor of c-fos transcription. Further experiments confirmed that this repressor is mainly induced by HRG, but not EGF, and requires new protein synthesis. We show how a spatially distributed, signaling-transcription cascade robustly discriminates between transient and sustained ERK activities at the c-Fos system level. The proposed control mechanisms are general and operate in different cell types, stimulated by various ligands.Cell 05/2010; 141(5):884-96. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2010.03.054 · 33.12 Impact Factor