Barriers to contraceptive use in Kenya.
ABSTRACT This study was designed to identify and to better understand the barriers to contraceptive use among Kenyan-couples. Data were collected through structured interviews and focus group discussions among couples not planning for pregnancy and not using any effective contraceptive method. The study was conducted in the Baba Dogo urban slum area of Nairobi, and Chwele, a rural sub-location in Bungoma, western Kenya. Some important barriers to contraceptive use were identified in couples wishing to space or limit further births. Those barriers included lack of agreement on contraceptive use and on reproductive intentions; husband's attitude on his role as a decision maker; perceived undesirable side effects, distribution and infant mortality; negative traditional practices and desires such as naming relatives, and preference for sons as security in old age. There were also gaps in knowledge on contraceptive methods, fears, rumours and misconceptions about specific methods and unavailability or poor quality of services in the areas studied. This paper recommends that information and educational programmes should be instituted to increase contraceptive knowledge, to emphasise the value of quality of life over traditional reproductive practices and desires, and to improve availability and quality of services.
Official journal of the South African Academy of Family Practice/Primary Care 08/2014; 51(4):340-342. DOI:10.1080/20786204.2009.10873876
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have used couple data to identify associations between individual- and relationship-level characteristics and contraceptive use in urban areas. Population-based survey data collected in 2010 in three Kenyan cities-Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu-were used to identify 883 couples. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between relationship-level characteristics (i.e., desire for another child, and communication about desired number of children and family planning use) and contraceptive use among couples currently using contraceptives; additional analyses investigated intention to use contraceptives among couples currently not practicing contraception. Sixty percent of couples reported current use of contraceptives. In multivariate analyses, couples who desired another child were less likely to use contraceptives than couples who wanted no more children (odds ratio, 0.5). Couples in which both partners reported spousal communication about family planning in the past six months had greater odds of contraceptive use than couples that reported no spousal communication on the subject (3.8). Results from analyses examining associations between relationship-level characteristics and intention to use contraceptives among current nonusers resembled those from analyses of current contraceptive users. In this study, relationship-level characteristics were associated with current contraceptive use and intention to use contraceptives among couples in urban Kenya. Family planning programs that promote spousal communication about family planning and desired number of children may improve contraceptive use among urban couples.International perspectives on sexual and reproductive health 03/2014; 40(1):11-20. DOI:10.1363/4001114 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Summary This study investigates inequalities at the province level of the use of modern contraception and the proportion of short birth intervals among women in the DRC using data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression and Bayesian geo-additive models were used. The posterior odds ratio and the associated 95% credible interval (95% CI) were estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Posterior spatial effects were mapped at the province level with the associated posterior probability maps showing statistical significance at 5%. The overall rates of modern contraception use among the entire sample of women (15-49 years old; N=7172) and youth (15-24 years old; N=1389) were 5.7% and 6.0% respectively. However, there was striking variation in contraceptive use between the two groups across provinces with a clear east-to-west gradient. The highest use in the total sample was in Nord-Kivu (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.12, 1.55) and Bas Congo provinces (1.47; 1.22, 1.78). For the youth, the highest use was observed in Nord-Kivu (1.19; 0.92, 1.65). In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive regression analyses among the entire sample of women, factors consistently associated with lower use of modern contraception were living in rural areas (0.71; 0.62, 0.82), living in low-income households (0.67; 0.54, 0.80) and having no education (0.83; 0.67, 0.97). For the youth sample, living in low-income households (0.57; 0.41, 0.84) and no breast-feeding (0.64; 0.47, 0.86) were consistently associated with a lower use of modern contraception. The study shows a distinct geographic pattern in the use of modern contraception in youth and the entire sample of women in the DRC, suggesting a potential role for socioeconomic factors, such as accessibility, affordability and availability, as well as environmental factors at the province level beyond individual-level risk factors.Journal of Biosocial Science 06/2014; DOI:10.1017/S0021932014000212 · 0.98 Impact Factor