Article

A genetic screen for mutations affecting embryogenesis in zebrafish.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 01/1997; 123:37-46.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Systematic genome-wide mutagenesis screens for embryonic phenotypes have been instrumental in the understanding of invertebrate and plant development. Here, we report the results from the first application of such a large-scale genetic screening to vertebrate development. Male zebrafish were mutagenized with N-ethyl N-nitrosourea to induce mutations in spermatogonial cells at an average specific locus rate of one in 651 mutagenized genomes. Mutations were transmitted to the F1 generation, and 2205 F2 families were raised. F3 embryos from sibling crosses within the F2 families were screened for developmental abnormalities. A total of 2337 mutagenized genomes were analyzed, and 2383 mutations resulting in abnormal embryonic and early larval phenotypes were identified. The phenotypes of 695 mutants indicated involvement of the identified loci in specific aspects of embryogenesis. These mutations were maintained for further characterization and were classified into categories according to their phenotypes. The analyses and genetic complementation of mutations from several categories are reported in separate manuscripts. Mutations affecting pigmentation, motility, muscle and body shape have not been extensively analyzed and are listed here. A total of 331 mutations were tested for allelism within their respective categories. This defined 220 genetic loci with on average 1.5 alleles per locus. For about two-thirds of all loci only one allele was isolated. Therefore it is not possible to give a reliable estimate on the degree of saturation reached in our screen; however, the number of genes that can mutate to visible embryonic and early larval phenotypes in zebrafish is expected to be several-fold larger than the one for which we have observed mutant alleles during the screen. This screen demonstrates that mutations affecting a variety of developmental processes can be efficiently recovered from zebrafish.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
118 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The widespread availability of programmable site-specific nucleases now enables targeted gene disruption in the zebrafish. In this study, we applied site-specific nucleases to generate zebrafish lines bearing individual mutations in more than 20 genes. We found that mutations in only a small proportion of genes caused defects in embryogenesis. Moreover, mutants for ten different genes failed to recapitulate published Morpholino-induced phenotypes (morphants). The absence of phenotypes in mutant embryos was not likely due to maternal effects or failure to eliminate gene function. Consistently, a comparison of published morphant defects with the Sanger Zebrafish Mutation Project revealed that approximately 80% of morphant phenotypes were not observed in mutant embryos, similar to our mutant collection. Based on these results, we suggest that mutant phenotypes become the standard metric to define gene function in zebrafish, after which Morpholinos that recapitulate respective phenotypes could be reliably applied for ancillary analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The choroid plexus, an epithelial-based structure localized in the brain ventricle, is the major component of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus produces the cerebrospinal fluid and regulates the components of the cerebrospinal fluid. Abnormal choroid plexus function is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, tumor formation in the choroid plexus epithelium, and hydrocephaly. In this study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model system to understand the genetic components of choroid plexus development. We generated an enhancer trap line, Et(cp:EGFP) (sj2), that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the choroid plexus epithelium. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescent tracers, we demonstrated that the zebrafish choroid plexus possesses brain barrier properties such as tight junctions and transporter activity. Thus, we have established zebrafish as a functionally relevant model to study choroid plexus development. Using an unbiased approach, we performed a forward genetic dissection of the choroid plexus to identify genes essential for its formation and function. Using Et(cp:EGFP) (sj2), we isolated 10 recessive mutant lines with choroid plexus abnormalities, which were grouped into five classes based on GFP intensity, epithelial localization, and overall choroid plexus morphology. We also mapped the mutation for two mutant lines to chromosomes 4 and 21, respectively. The mutants generated in this study can be used to elucidate specific genes and signaling pathways essential for choroid plexus development, function, and/or maintenance and will provide important insights into how these genetic mutations contribute to disease.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:364. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00364
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
433 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014