The Impact of Postnatal Depression and Associated Adversity on Early Mother Infant Interaction and Later Infant Outcome

University of Cambridge.
Child Development (Impact Factor: 4.72). 11/1996; 67(5):2512-26. DOI: 10.2307/1131637
Source: PubMed


The impact of maternal depression and adversity on mother-infant face-to-face interactions at 2 months, and on subsequent infant cognitive development and attachment, was examined in a low-risk sample of primiparous women and their infants. The severe disturbances in mother-infant engagement characteristic of depressed groups in disadvantaged populations were not evident in the context of postpartum mood disorder in the present study. However, compared to well women, depressed mothers were less sensitively attuned to their infants, and were less affirming and more negating of infant experience. Similar difficulties in maternal interactions were also evident in the context of social and personal adversity. Disturbances in early mother-infant interactions were found to be predictive of poorer infant cognitive outcome at 18 months. Infant attachment, by contrast, was not related to the quality of 2-month interactions, but was significantly associated with the occurrence of adversity, as well as postpartum depression.

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    • "t and maternal populations ( e . g . , clinical groups with schizophrenia , social adversity ) , showing good reliability ( Riordan et al . , 1999 ; Gunning et al . , 2004 ; Grant et al . , 2010 ; Costa and Figueiredo , 2011 ; Montirosso et al . , 2012 ; Agostini and Murray , 2014 ) and validity in predicting the subsequent child ' s performance ( Murray et al . , 1996a , b ) . As to the procedure , the mother was asked to sit opposite her baby , and to freely interact for 5 min without toys , as she usually would do at home . Video recordings of the episode were rated by a trained and expert rater ( blind to maternal mood ) on four maternal behavioral dimensions ( Sensitivity , Intrusiveness , Remoten"
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW's mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother-infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan supportive interventions.
    Frontiers in Psychology 09/2015; 6:1234. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01234 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "The negative effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on offspring development can extend beyond the in utero effects, as maternal care may also be altered (O'Connor and Paley, 2006; Pearson et al., 2012). Indeed, the quality of maternal care has long-lasting consequences for the physical and mental health of infants and children (Gershon et al., 2013; Hofer, 1994; Hofer et al., 2008; Kim and Cicchetti, 2006; Murray et al., 1996), findings supported by studies in rodents demonstrating the significant developmental consequences of maternal care (Barha et al., 2007; Champagne et al., 2003; Hellstrom et al., 2012; Lindeyer et al., 2013; Raineki et al., 2012; Weaver et al., 2004). Studies using animal models to investigate the consequences of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on maternal care have reported inconsistent results. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 07/2015; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.03.001 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    • "Mothers were asked to play with and talk to their infant (seated facing the mother) as they would normally , without the use of toys. Using the Global Rating Scales (Murray et al., 1996), four maternal (i.e., sensitivity, intrusiveness , remoteness and depressive affect) and 3 infant behavioural dimensions (i.e., attentiveness, activeengagement , and fretfulness) were coded (Supplementary Table 1 of the supplemental information), by two trained coders, blind to infant risk status. Inter-rater intraclass correlations (ICC) on a randomly selected 20% of the interactions ranged from .75 to .90, indicating acceptable inter-rater reliability . "
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    ABSTRACT: Adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a reduced sensitivity (degree of selective response) to social stimuli such as human voices. In order to determine whether this reduced sensitivity is a consequence of years of poor social interaction and communication or is present prior to significant experience, we used functional MRI to examine cortical sensitivity to auditory stimuli in infants at high familial risk for later emerging ASD (HR group, N = 15), and compared this to infants with no family history of ASD (LR group, N = 18). The infants (aged between 4 and 7 months) were presented with voice and environmental sounds while asleep in the scanner and their behaviour was also examined in the context of observed parent-infant interaction. Whereas LR infants showed early specialisation for human voice processing in right temporal and medial frontal regions, the HR infants did not. Similarly, LR infants showed stronger sensitivity than HR infants to sad vocalisations in the right fusiform gyrus and left hippocampus. Also, in the HR group only, there was an association between each infant's degree of engagement during social interaction and the degree of voice sensitivity in key cortical regions. These results suggest that at least some infants at high-risk for ASD have atypical neural responses to human voice with and without emotional valence. Further exploration of the relationship between behaviour during social interaction and voice processing may help better understand the mechanisms that lead to different outcomes in at risk populations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Cortex 06/2015; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.06.015 · 5.13 Impact Factor
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