Rift Valley fever in Nigeria: infections in domestic animals.
ABSTRACT Between 1986 and 1989, 2,255 sera collected from six domestic animal species in Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. In addition, a longitudinal study was carried out from July 1987 to December 1988, using ten sentinel flocks on four farms at Ibadan and Ile-Ife, to determine the activity of RVF virus (RVFV). All samples were tested for haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and positive sera were further screened, using the plaque reduction neutralisation test. Of 2,255 samples, 259 (11.5%) had haemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralising antibodies, as follows: sheep (18.7%), goats (10.4%), cattle (10.2%), horses (9.8%) and camels (3.3%). The highest prevalence of RVFV antibody was found in the plateau area (18.4%). Animals aged three years or more had a higher prevalence of antibodies to RVFV. Longitudinal studies showed seroconversion to RVFV in ten of the 210 animals which were kept under observation (4.8%). All seroconversions occurred during the wet season. The results of this study indicate that the infection of animals with RVFV is widespread in Nigeria.
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.Emerging infectious diseases 05/2006; 12(4):647-52. · 6.17 Impact Factor
Article: Cellular localization and antigenic characterization of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus glycoproteins.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae, causes severe disease with high rates of mortality in humans. The CCHFV M RNA segment encodes the virus glycoproteins G(N) and G(C). To understand the processing and intracellular localization of the CCHFV glycoproteins as well as their neutralization and protection determinants, we produced and characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for both G(N) and G(C). Using these MAbs, we found that G(N) predominantly colocalized with a Golgi marker when expressed alone or with G(C), while G(C) was transported to the Golgi apparatus only in the presence of G(N). Both proteins remained endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H sensitive, indicating that the CCHFV glycoproteins are most likely targeted to the cis Golgi apparatus. Golgi targeting information partly resides within the G(N) ectodomain, because a soluble version of G(N) lacking its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains also localized to the Golgi apparatus. Coexpression of soluble versions of G(N) and G(C) also resulted in localization of soluble G(C) to the Golgi apparatus, indicating that the ectodomains of these proteins are sufficient for the interactions needed for Golgi targeting. Finally, the mucin-like and P35 domains, located at the N terminus of the G(N) precursor protein and removed posttranslationally by endoproteolysis, were required for Golgi targeting of G(N) when it was expressed alone but were dispensable when G(C) was coexpressed. In neutralization assays on SW-13 cells, MAbs to G(C), but not to G(N), prevented CCHFV infection. However, only a subset of G(C) MAbs protected mice in passive-immunization experiments, while some nonneutralizing G(N) MAbs efficiently protected animals from a lethal CCHFV challenge. Thus, neutralization of CCHFV likely depends not only on the properties of the antibody, but on host cell factors as well. In addition, nonneutralizing antibody-dependent mechanisms, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, may be involved in the in vivo protection seen with the MAbs to G(C).Journal of Virology 06/2005; 79(10):6152-61. · 5.40 Impact Factor