Structural features of mammalian gonadotropins.

Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University, KS 67260-0026, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.24). 01/1997; 125(1-2):3-19. DOI: 10.1016/S0303-7207(96)03945-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There are two species for which both pituitary and placental gonadotropins are readily available, humans and horses. The human gonadotropins are better characterized than equine gonadotropins. Nevertheless, the latter are very interesting because they provide exceptions to some of the general structure-function principles derived from studies on human and other mammalian gonadotropins. For example, separate genes encode the hLH beta and hCG beta subunits while a single gene encodes eLH beta and eCG beta. Thus, eCG and eLH differ only in their oligosaccharide moieties and eLH is the only LH that possesses the O-glycosylated C-terminal extension previously believed to be restricted to chorionic gonadotropins. Truncation experiments involving eLH beta and hCG beta have suggested the C-terminal extension has no effect on receptor binding. However, the largest of three eCG forms which differ only in the extent of O-glycosylation possessed reduced affinity for LH and FSH receptors. This result suggested that effects of O-glycosylation need to be considered when examining the glycosylation differences between eLH and eCG responsible for the 10-fold lower eCG receptor binding affinity compared with that of eLH. Contribution of alpha Asn56 N-linked oligosaccharides to the different biological activities of eLH and eCG has been evaluated following selective removal using peptide-N-glycanase digestion of native equine alpha-subunit preparations. Hormones-specific patterns of glycosylation were observed on alpha Asn56 of eLH, eFSH, and eCG. Removal of alpha Asn56 oligosaccharides increased the rate of subunit association, the extent of association, and receptor binding activity. Some unassociated alpha-subunit oligosaccharides were identified which may interfere with subunit association because they were more abundant in unassociated subunit oligosaccharide maps than in a total oligosaccharide map. This was most striking in the case of eCG alpha in which two minor peaks became the major oligosaccharide peaks detectable in the unassociated eCG alpha fraction following association with eLH beta and eFSH beta. The biological activities exhibited by hybrid hormones, eLH alpha reassociated with oLH beta and pLH beta, found to be greater than those of oLH and pLH provided an interesting exception to the general rule that the beta-subunit determines the potency of the heterodimer. LH receptor binding activities of eLH beta-chimeric ovine/equine alpha-subunits suggested that the equine alpha-subunit N-terminal domain may be responsible for this effect. Equine FSH has higher FSH receptor binding activity than human, ovine, and porcine FSH preparations. This probably results from two factors. First, the presence of the equine alpha-subunit promotes receptor binding as noted above. Second, the overall -2 charge of the eFSH beta determinant loop, which is less negative that the -3 observed in other species, results from the presence of an Asn residue at position 88 instead of Asp. This apparently facilitates binding to the FSH receptor.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spermatogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves endocrine and testicular factors. During xenotransplantation of testicular tissue fragments into immunodecifient mouse mice a functional communication between host brain and donor testis is established. This interaction allows for the progression of a normal spermatogenesis and recovery of fertilization-competent spermatozoa from a broad range of mammalian species. In the last years, significant progression have has been achieved in testis tissue xenografting that improves our knowledge about factors determining the success of grafting. The goal of this review is to provide up to date information about the role of factors such as donor age, donor species, testis tissue preservation or type of recipient mouse on the efficiency of this technique. Applications will be are described and compared with other techniques with similar purposes. Recent works demonstrates that testicular tissue xenografting is being used as a model to study gonadotoxicity of drugs and to obtain sperm from valuable young males.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determining luteinizing hormone (LH) in bovine plasma is described. Anti-bovine LH (bLH) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced and characterized. One mAb recognizing the bLH β subunit was used for immunoaffinity purification of substantial amounts of biologically active bLH from pituitary glands. The purified bLH in combination with 2 anti-bLH β subunit mAbs was used to develop a sandwich ELISA, which satisfied all the criteria required to investigate LH secretory patterns in the bovine species. The ELISA standard curve was linear over the range 0.05 to 2.5 ng/mL, and the assay proved suitable for measuring bLH in plasma without any prior treatment of samples. Cross-reactivity and recovery tests confirmed the specificity of the method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged between 3.41% and 9.40%, and 9.29% and 15.84%, respectively. The analytical specificity of the method was validated in vivo by provocative tests for LH in heifers, using the LH releasing peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In conclusion, the adoption of mAbs for this ELISA for coating the wells and labeling, combined with the easy one-step production of reference bLH, ensures long-term continuity in large-scale measurements of LH in the bovine species.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology 07/2014; 48C:145-157. DOI:10.1016/j.domaniend.2014.03.004 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient.


Available from
May 31, 2014