Altered Rous sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein processing and its effects on particle formation.

Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 04/1997; 71(3):2083-91.
Source: PubMed


Proteolytic processing of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag precursor was altered in vivo through the introduction of amino acid substitutions into either the polyprotein cleavage junctions or the PR coding sequence. Single amino acid substitutions (V(P2)S and P(P4)G), which are predicted from in vitro peptide substrate cleavage data to decrease the rate of release of PR from the Gag polyprotein, were placed in the NC portion of the NC-PR junction. These substitutions do not affect the efficiency of release of virus-like particles from COS cells even though recovered particles contain significant amounts of uncleaved Pr76gag in addition to mature viral proteins. Single amino acid substitutions (A(P3)F and S(P1)Y), which increase the rate of PR release from Gag, also do not affect budding of virus-like particles from cells. Substitution of the inefficiently cleaved MA-p2 junction sequence in Gag by eight amino acids from the rapidly cleaved NC-PR sequence resulted in a significant increase in cleavage at the new MA-p2 junction, but again without an effect on budding. However, decreased budding was observed when the A(P3)F or S(P1)Y substitution was included in the NC-PR junction sequence between the MA and p2 proteins. A budding defect was also caused by substitution into Gag of a PR subunit containing three amino acid substitutions (R105P, G106V, and S107N) in the substrate binding pocket that increase the catalytic activity of PR. The defect appears to be the result of premature proteolytic processing that could be rescued by inactivating PR through substitution of a serine for the catalytic aspartic acid residue. This budding defect was also rescued by single amino acid substitutions in the NC-PR cleavage site which decrease the rate of release of PR from Gag. A similar budding defect was caused by replacing the Gag PR with two PR subunits covalently linked by four glycine residues. In contrast to the defect caused by the triply substituted PR, the budding defect observed with the linked PR dimer could not be rescued by NC-PR cleavage site mutations, suggesting that PR dimerization is a limiting step in the maturation process. Overall, these results are consistent with a model in which viral protein maturation occurs after PR subunits are released from the Gag polyprotein.

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    • "Premature processing can also be induced by overexpression of PR or Gag–Pro–Pol (e.g.(Mergener et al., 1992; Park and Morrow, 1991)), by activating mutations in PR (e.g. (Xiang et al., 1997)) or – in the case of HIV-1 – by addition of certain non-nucleosidic RT inhibitors, which promote Gag–Pro–Pol dimerization by stabilizing intermolecular interactions between RT domains (Figueiredo et al., 2006). Dimer formation is likely not the only trigger mechanism, however. "
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    ABSTRACT: Proteolytic processing of viral polyproteins is essential for retrovirus infectivity. Retroviral proteases (PR) become activated during or after assembly of the immature, non-infectious virion. They cleave viral polyproteins at specific sites, inducing major structural rearrangements termed maturation. Maturation converts retroviral enzymes into their functional form, transforms the immature shell into a metastable state primed for early replication events, and enhances viral entry competence. Not only cleavage at all PR recognition sites, but also an ordered sequence of cleavages is crucial. Proteolysis is tightly regulated, but the triggering mechanisms and kinetics and pathway of morphological transitions remain enigmatic. Here, we outline PR structures and substrate specificities focusing on HIV PR as a therapeutic target. We discuss design and clinical success of HIV PR inhibitors, as well as resistance development towards these drugs. Finally, we summarize data elucidating the role of proteolysis in maturation and highlight unsolved questions regarding retroviral maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Virology 03/2015; 479-480. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.021 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    • "The effects of the p10-CA substitutions on Gag processing were tested by introduction of the mutations into the context of full-length Gag and expressing the wild type or mutant Gag proteins in COS-1 cells [2,3]. Gag and its cleavage products were immunoprecipitated from the media and lysate fractions from transfected cells following metabolic labeling and were separated using SDS-PAGE (Fig. 1B, top). "
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    ABSTRACT: A series of amino acid substitutions (M239F, M239G, P240F, V241G) were placed in the p10-CA protease cleavage site (VVAM*PVVI) to change the rate of cleavage of the junction. The effects of these substitutions on p10-CA cleavage by RSV PR were confirmed by measuring the kinetics of cleavage of model peptide substrates containing the wild type and mutant p10-CA sites. The effects of these substitutions on processing of the Gag polyprotein were determined by labeling Gag transfected COS-1 cells with 35S-Met and -Cys, and immunoprecipitation of Gag and its cleavage products from the media and lysate fractions. All substitutions except M239F caused decreases in detectable Gag processing and subsequent release from cells. Several of the mutants also caused defects in production of the three CA proteins. The p10-CA mutations were subcloned into an RSV proviral vector (RCAN) and introduced into a chick embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1). All of the mutations except M239F blocked RSV replication. In addition, the effects of the M239F and M239G substitutions on the morphology of released virus particles were examined by electron microscopy. While the M239F particles appeared similar to wild type particles, M239G particles contained cores that were large and misshapen. These results suggest that mutations affecting cleavage at the p10-CA protease cleavage site block RSV replication and can have a negative impact on virus particle morphology.
    Retrovirology 02/2005; 2:58. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-2-58 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "The viral structural proteins assume altered conformations after processing, and the viral enzymes become fully active in their processed forms [1-7]. Proper proteolytic processing is necessary for assembly of an infectious particle [3,4,8-10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR) domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain.
    Retrovirology 02/2005; 2(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-2-66 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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