Visceral fat and race-dependent health risks in obese nondiabetic premenopausal women.
ABSTRACT Our previous finding that a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) >0.85 was not associated with similar health risks in black, compared with white, obese premenopausal non-diabetic women of similar fatness is attributed to either 1) a different relationship between WHR and visceral adiposity or 2) differences in the relationship between visceral adiposity and the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. We measured visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) areas at midwaist in 25 black and 25 white obese nondiabetic pre-menopausal women with similar BMI, percentage body fat, and wide range of WHR (0.7-0.95 for black women and 0.7-0.9 for white women) and then compared insulin sensitivity index (SI), glucose and insulin areas under the 2-h curve (AUCs) during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and blood lipids in the two groups before and after adjustments for total body and visceral adiposity. After adjusting for total body fat mass (FM), obese black women had significantly less VAT (by 32 cm2) and lower VAT/SCAT for any given WHR. The regression equations predicting the SI the glucose and insulin AUCs, and the triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels from regional adipose tissue measurements (VAT, SCAT, or VAT/SCAT) and from total body fat (FM or percentage body fat) had slopes that were not significantly different for black and white women. LDL cholesterol levels were independently related to VAT in black but not in white women. The black women had a similar SI insulin AUC, and triglyceride levels but significantly lower glucose AUC and higher HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.001), after adjusting for VAT and FM. Regression analysis of the pooled data showed that high VAT and high VAT/SCAT, but not SCAT, predicted lower SI higher glucose and insulin AUCs during OGTT, and higher triglyceride levels, independent of total adiposity. We conclude that while increases in VAT and VAT/SCAT adversely affect metabolism in both black and white obese premenopausal women, similar levels of total body and visceral adiposity are associated with different metabolic risk factors in these groups.
- SourceAvailable from: M. E. Zaki[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background 265T>C SNP in the APOA-II gene promoter may be associated with obesity risk and insulin resistance (IR). This study aims to analyze the association between the APOA2 − 265T>C SNP and risk for obesity and IR in adolescents. Material and methods The study was conducted on 500 adolescents. They were 240 obese and 260 non-obese individuals, aged 16–21 years old. Their mean age was 18.25 ± 2.54 years. Variables examined body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), and abdominal visceral fat layer. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a biomarker for IR. BF% was assessed by body composition analyzer and abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The APOA2 − 265T>C polymorphism genotype was analyzed by PCR amplification of a 273-bp fragment. Results Genotype frequencies were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases than non-obese cases. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF%, visceral adipose layer and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT + TC carriers. Homozygous individuals for the CC allele had statistically higher values of energy intake, total fat (g/day) and saturated fat (SATFAT) than carriers of the T allele. Conclusions Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, the present study shows that the CC polymorphism is associated with the development of IR [OR 1.89 (1.35–2.91), P = .012] and remains significant after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index.Meta Gene. 12/2014; 2:366–373.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The metabolic syndrome affects 25% of the adult US population based on the Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults from the National Cholesterol Education Program. Knowledge on the impact of obesity on metabolic health parameters has increased greatly over the past decade. This review discusses the limitations of the National Cholesterol Education Program metabolic syndrome definition and the racial disparities in the clinical presentation of the insulin resistance syndrome. We also examine the current literature with particular emphasis on albuminuria, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and intramyocellular lipid content. This review explores potential environmental and genetic reasons for differences in the manifestation of insulin resistance across racial/ethnic groups and highlights several promising areas for further study.Seminars in Nephrology 09/2013; 33(5):457-467. · 2.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective To determine whether menopause-related changes in reproductive hormones were associated with change in adiposity and whether these relationships were independent of important covariates.Methods Annual assessments of adiposity measures [computed tomography-assessed visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-assessed total body fat (TBF)] over 4 years from an ancillary study at the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were paired with reproductive hormones collected by SWAN. Included were 243 women (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who were eligible participants in a population-based cohort with a 72% participation rate.ResultsVAT increased by 3.8% annually, and SAT increased by 1.8% per year. Change in bioavailable testosterone was significantly positively associated with changes both in VAT and in SAT but was not related to change in total body fat. The associations were independent of age, race, physical activity, smoking, baseline TBF, baseline bioavailable testosterone, and change in TBF. Change in estradiol was unrelated to changes in any adiposity measure.Conclusions Bioavailable testosterone may play an important role in menopause-related redistribution of visceral and subcutaneous fat in the central abdominal region.Obesity 12/2014; · 4.39 Impact Factor