Visceral fat and race-dependent health risks in obese nondiabetic premenopausal women
ABSTRACT Our previous finding that a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) >0.85 was not associated with similar health risks in black, compared with white, obese premenopausal non-diabetic women of similar fatness is attributed to either 1) a different relationship between WHR and visceral adiposity or 2) differences in the relationship between visceral adiposity and the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. We measured visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) areas at midwaist in 25 black and 25 white obese nondiabetic pre-menopausal women with similar BMI, percentage body fat, and wide range of WHR (0.7-0.95 for black women and 0.7-0.9 for white women) and then compared insulin sensitivity index (SI), glucose and insulin areas under the 2-h curve (AUCs) during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and blood lipids in the two groups before and after adjustments for total body and visceral adiposity. After adjusting for total body fat mass (FM), obese black women had significantly less VAT (by 32 cm2) and lower VAT/SCAT for any given WHR. The regression equations predicting the SI the glucose and insulin AUCs, and the triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels from regional adipose tissue measurements (VAT, SCAT, or VAT/SCAT) and from total body fat (FM or percentage body fat) had slopes that were not significantly different for black and white women. LDL cholesterol levels were independently related to VAT in black but not in white women. The black women had a similar SI insulin AUC, and triglyceride levels but significantly lower glucose AUC and higher HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.001), after adjusting for VAT and FM. Regression analysis of the pooled data showed that high VAT and high VAT/SCAT, but not SCAT, predicted lower SI higher glucose and insulin AUCs during OGTT, and higher triglyceride levels, independent of total adiposity. We conclude that while increases in VAT and VAT/SCAT adversely affect metabolism in both black and white obese premenopausal women, similar levels of total body and visceral adiposity are associated with different metabolic risk factors in these groups.
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ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI) is believed to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risks. A major question is whether each BMI category provides independent risk information and whether the BMI categories provide similar results for African-American (AA) men and women relative to lipid, lipoproteins, and blood pressure. A descriptive research design was used to evaluate the effects of BMI categories on lipoproteins, lipids, and blood pressure, and to determine if similar CHD risks related to these variables were observed in AA men and women. The 358 (108 men and 250 women; 40-70 year of age) participants were recruited from churches in a southeastern metropolitan area. The results indicate that BMI is positively associated with lipoproteins, lipids, and blood pressure in both AA men and women. Relative risks for CHD were higher for obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) men and women, but the overweight (OW) category provided the same information as the normal weight (NW) category for men, but not for women. This suggests that the same BMI standards provide different CHD risk information for AA men than for AA women and that gender-specific BMI standards may be warranted for more effective CHD risk stratification in AA adults.Preventive Medicine 04/2005; 40(3):349-54. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.06.013 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format. Mode of access: World Wide Web. Advisor: R. J. Moffatt, Florida State University, College of Human Sciences, Dept. of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences. Title and description from dissertation home page (viewed June 12, 2006). Document formatted into pages; contains xi, 140 pages. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Florida State University, 2006. Includes bibliographical references.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity, hypertension, and related metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities contribute significantly to cardiovascular disease in westernized societies such as the United States. Both obesity and hypertension are more prevalent among minorities such as black and Hispanic populations. Obesity substantially increases the likelihood of hypertension, and weight reduction has been shown to be an effective hygienic measure in reducing blood pressure. There is accumulating evidence that central obesity, particularly obesity that is distributed in the paraomental (visceral) region, especially predisposes one to hypertension and related metabolic abnormalities that contribute cerebrovascular disease.Current Hypertension Reports 03/1999; 1(2):140-4. DOI:10.1007/s11906-999-0009-6 · 3.90 Impact Factor