Infant development and developmental risk: a review of the past 10 years.
ABSTRACT To review critically the research on infant developmental risk published in the past 10 years.
A brief framework on development in the first 3 years is provided. This is followed by a review of pertinent studies of developmental risk, chosen to illustrate major risk conditions and the protective factors known to affect infant development. Illustrative risk conditions include prematurity and serious medical illness and infant temperament, infant-caregiver attachment, parental psychopathology, marital quality and interactions, poverty and social class, adolescent parenthood, and family violence.
Risk and protective factors interact complexly. There are few examples of specific or linear links between risk conditions and outcomes during or beyond the first 3 years of life. Infant development is best appreciated within the context of caregiving relationships, which mediate the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic risk conditions.
Complex and evolving interrelationships among risk factors are beginning to be elucidated. Linear models of cause and effect are of little use in understanding the development of psychopathology. Refining our markers of risk and demonstrating effective preventive interventions are the next important challenges.
- SourceAvailable from: Nicholas J Spencer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parental concerns about their children's development can be used as an indicator of developmental risk. We undertook a systematic review of the prevalence of parents' concerns as an indicator of developmental risk, measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) and associated risk factors.BMC Pediatrics 09/2014; 14(1):231. · 1.92 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Perinatal and background risk factors for autism were identified in a cohort of autistic children in Zhengzhou, China, to formulate preventative and treatment strategies for high-risk families. In this case-control study, children were screened for suspected autism using the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). We collected perinatal histories and clinical data of 286 confirmed autistic children treated at the Third Affiliated Hospital Children׳s Psychological Clinic of Zhengzhou University from 2011 to 2013. The control group consisted of 286 healthy children from area kindergartens. Maternal age>30 years, parental introversion as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, low level of parental education, smoking, abortion threat, pregnancy complications, maternal illness during pregnancy, maternal mental health, family history of mental illness, neonatal jaundice, birth asphyxia, premature rupture of the fetal membrane, and gestational age<37 weeks were significantly higher in the autism group. These factors were significantly correlated with behavioral symptoms as measured by ABC scores (Kendall rank correlation). Birth asphyxia, neonatal jaundice, maternal age, parental introversion, family history of mental illness, abortion threat, premature delivery, and smoking were identified as independent risk factors by multivariate logistic regression.Psychiatry Research 06/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Development occurs according to the rhythm that is established by the genetic potential and the influence of environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the child's residence area and maternal education on child's motor development. Eight hundred children (384 boys and 416 girls, aged 37-72 months), randomly selected from daycare centres and kindergartens of rural and urban areas of Northern Greece, were tested on the two motor subscales (A, locomotor; and D, eye-hand coordination) of the Griffiths Test No II. With respect to their residence, 610 children lived in urban and 190 lived in rural areas. In terms of education, 530 mothers were formally educated and 270 were highly educated. The results of this study suggest that motor development of preschool-aged children is associated with both factors examined. Children who lived in urban areas had better performance on fine motor abilities than children who lived in rural areas. In contrast, rural children had a higher developmental quotient than urban children on the locomotor scale. With regard to mother's education, children of highly educated mothers had a higher mean developmental quotient on both scales. The findings reinforce the need for a safe and opportunity-rich environment, which ensures that children reach their full developmental potential.Early Child Development and Care 07/2007; 177(5).