Infant development and developmental risk: a review of the past 10 years.
ABSTRACT To review critically the research on infant developmental risk published in the past 10 years.
A brief framework on development in the first 3 years is provided. This is followed by a review of pertinent studies of developmental risk, chosen to illustrate major risk conditions and the protective factors known to affect infant development. Illustrative risk conditions include prematurity and serious medical illness and infant temperament, infant-caregiver attachment, parental psychopathology, marital quality and interactions, poverty and social class, adolescent parenthood, and family violence.
Risk and protective factors interact complexly. There are few examples of specific or linear links between risk conditions and outcomes during or beyond the first 3 years of life. Infant development is best appreciated within the context of caregiving relationships, which mediate the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic risk conditions.
Complex and evolving interrelationships among risk factors are beginning to be elucidated. Linear models of cause and effect are of little use in understanding the development of psychopathology. Refining our markers of risk and demonstrating effective preventive interventions are the next important challenges.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Charles H Zeanah, Jul 01, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Postnatal nutrition influences neurodevelopment, but it is not known whether the development of individual differences in physiologic measures is related to variations in early postnatal diet. To address this issue we studied the stability of vagal tone (V)-an index of individual differences in parasympathetic heart rate control-by measuring resting V quarterly during infancy and again at 2 years in 146 breast-fed (BF), 143 milk formula-fed (MF), and 137 soy formula-fed (SF) infants. Stability of V across infancy was more consistently significant for BF than formula-fed infants. Stability was similar for boys and girls in BF and SF groups but was generally higher in boys than girls in the MF group. Significant stability between infancy and 2 years emerged later in SF than other groups and later in boys than girls. Stability generally peaked between 6 and 9 months - a time when postnatal vagal myelination slows and which may represent a pivotal stage in the development of V stability. These findings indicate that infant diet and gender are important modulators of the early development of autonomic state control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 03/2015; 96(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.02.028 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and developmental trajectories of externalizing behavior problems from 18 to 54 months of child age. A hypothesized indirect association between PCE and externalizing trajectories via maternal negative affect was also examined. Caregiving environmental risk and child sex were evaluated as moderators. This study consisted of 196 mother-child dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (107 PCE, 89 non-PCE) and assessed at seven time points across the toddler to preschool periods. Results revealed no direct associations between PCE and externalizing behavior problem trajectories. However, results did indicate that PCE shared a significant indirect relationship with externalizing behavior problem trajectories via higher levels of maternal negative affect. The association between PCE and externalizing problem trajectories was also moderated by caregiving environmental risk such that PCE children in high-risk caregiving environments did not experience the well-documented normative decline in externalizing behavior problems beginning at around 3 years of age. This study suggests potential pathways to externalizing behavior problems among high-risk children.Development and Psychopathology 03/2014; 26(02):1-14. DOI:10.1017/S0954579414000091 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present paper reports on the development and the psychometric properties of a brief observational assessment of home environments for use in large-scale investigations with young infants. We generated observational items conceptually relevant for child development by two methods. First, we adapted the Infant Toddler Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (IT-HOME) inventory for use in an exclusively observational context. Second, we added new observational items following a review of relevant literature and consulting professionals. The quality of the instrument was first evaluated in a pilot study (n = 926). In our study sample of 3406 families and their children (median age = 3.1 months, range = 1.6-6.0), exploratory factor analysis was used to identify latent constructs, Cronbach's alpha was used as a measure of internal consistency, and convergent validity was evaluated against family socio-demographic characteristics. Inter-observer agreement was investigated in a sub-sample of the respondents (n = 124). The results supported good psychometric properties of the instrument based on: (a) exploratory factor analysis yielding three meaningful latent constructs, (b) Cronbach's alphas ranging from α = 0.66 to α = 0.90, (c) inter-observer agreement ranging from r = 0.75 to r = 0.91, and (d) associations between the instrument and socio-demographic characteristics in the expected direction [e.g. Odds Ratio for low income = 15.24, 95% confidence interval (11.60, 20.01)]. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.09/2012; 21(3):195-204. DOI:10.1002/mpr.1361