Infant development and developmental risk: a review of the past 10 years.
ABSTRACT To review critically the research on infant developmental risk published in the past 10 years.
A brief framework on development in the first 3 years is provided. This is followed by a review of pertinent studies of developmental risk, chosen to illustrate major risk conditions and the protective factors known to affect infant development. Illustrative risk conditions include prematurity and serious medical illness and infant temperament, infant-caregiver attachment, parental psychopathology, marital quality and interactions, poverty and social class, adolescent parenthood, and family violence.
Risk and protective factors interact complexly. There are few examples of specific or linear links between risk conditions and outcomes during or beyond the first 3 years of life. Infant development is best appreciated within the context of caregiving relationships, which mediate the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic risk conditions.
Complex and evolving interrelationships among risk factors are beginning to be elucidated. Linear models of cause and effect are of little use in understanding the development of psychopathology. Refining our markers of risk and demonstrating effective preventive interventions are the next important challenges.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Charles H Zeanah, May 28, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Postnatal nutrition influences neurodevelopment, but it is not known whether the development of individual differences in physiologic measures is related to variations in early postnatal diet. To address this issue we studied the stability of vagal tone (V)-an index of individual differences in parasympathetic heart rate control-by measuring resting V quarterly during infancy and again at 2 years in 146 breast-fed (BF), 143 milk formula-fed (MF), and 137 soy formula-fed (SF) infants. Stability of V across infancy was more consistently significant for BF than formula-fed infants. Stability was similar for boys and girls in BF and SF groups but was generally higher in boys than girls in the MF group. Significant stability between infancy and 2 years emerged later in SF than other groups and later in boys than girls. Stability generally peaked between 6 and 9 months - a time when postnatal vagal myelination slows and which may represent a pivotal stage in the development of V stability. These findings indicate that infant diet and gender are important modulators of the early development of autonomic state control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 03/2015; 96(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.02.028 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Risikofaktoren in der frühen Kindheit beeinflussen die kindliche Entwicklung sowohl kurz- als auch langfristig. In der Risikoforschung unterscheidet man zwischen Vulnerabilitäten, den biologischen Prädispositionen und psychologischen Merkmalen des Kindes und Stressoren, den psychosozialen Bedingungen der Umwelt, die im vorliegenden Beitrag im Einzelnen beschrieben und in ihrer Wirksamkeit bewertet werden. Die Forschung zeigt, dass als Annäherung zur Einschätzung der kindlichen Risikobelastung am ehesten die Anzahl der das Kind umgebenden Risikofaktoren herangezogen werden kann. Entwicklungsschädigend wirken dabei vor allem bestimmte Konstellationen von kumulierten, lang andauernden Risikofaktoren, wobei die Qualität der Eltern–Kind-Beziehung sowie der Anregungsgrad der (häuslichen) Umgebung einen direkten Einfluss auf die kindliche Entwicklung haben. Interventionen zur Abpufferung von Risikofaktoren und gleichzeitige Stärkung von Ressourcen sollten daher möglichst frühzeitig ansetzen, langfristig angelegt sein und für ein verlässliches Beziehungsangebot innerhalb und/oder außerhalb der Familie sorgen. Abstract Risk factors in early childhood have short as well as long term effects on child development. Researchers distinguish between vulnerabilities, which are biological predispositions and psychological characteristics of the child, and stressors, which are psychosocial circumstances in the environment. Crucial vulnerabilities and stressors are described and evaluated in the following essay. The number of influencing risk factors seems to be the best predictor to evaluate the impact on the developmental outcome. Thus, a combination of cumulative long lasting risk factors has the most negative impact on child development. The qualities of parent-child interactions and the enrichment of the (home) environment are the only factors which have a direct impact on child development. Therefore, interventions to minimize the influence of risk constellations should begin early, be long lasting and should focus on assuring a secure relationship for the child, in or outside the family.Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft 03/2014; 17(S2):263-280. DOI:10.1007/s11618-013-0471-4 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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