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Neuropsychological dysfunction in schizotypal personality disorder: A profile analysis

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.25). 04/1997; 41(5):530-40. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(96)00056-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In order to examine the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), we studied a wide array of cognitive functions in 10 right-handed men who met DSM-III-R criteria for SPD and 10 matched normal controls. Cognitive functions included abstraction, verbal and spatial intelligence, memory and learning, language, attention, and motor skills. Neuropsychological profiles were constructed by standardizing test scores based on the means and standard deviations of the normal control group. SPD subjects showed significant decrements in performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, a word-list learning measure which requires semantic clustering for more efficient performance, and on the Wisconsin Card Sort Test, a measure requiring concept formation, abstraction, and mental flexibility. These results suggest possible areas of specific neuropsychological dysfunction in SPD, and are consistent with current hypotheses of left-temporal and prefrontal brain dysfunction in schizophrenia.

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    • " Vollema and Postma , 2002 ; Burch et al . , 2004 ; Krabbendam et al . , 2005 ) . Most important to the present study , cognitive functions relying on the frontal lobes such as cognitive flexibility ( Voglmaier et al . , 1997 ; Diforio et al . , 2000 ; Laurent et al . , 2000 ; Blanchard et al . , 2010 ) , working memory ( Park and McTigue , 1997 ; Voglmaier et al . , 1997 ; Kopp et al . , 2002 ; Voglmaier et al . , 2005 ) , verbal memory ( Burch et al . , 2006 ; Kaczorowski et al . , 2009 ) and verbal fluency ( Laurent et al . , 2000 ; Tsakanikos and Claridge , 2005 ) seem attenuated along the psychosis spectrum including schizotypy ( see also Reichenberg and Harvey , 2007 , for overview ) . A potential "
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    ABSTRACT: Mephedrone has been recently made illegal in Europe, but little empirical evidence is available on its impact on human cognitive functions. We investigated acute and chronic effects of mephedrone consumption on drug-sensitive cognitive measures, while also accounting for the influence of associated additional drug use and personality features. Twenty-six volunteers from the general population performed tasks measuring verbal learning, verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility before and after a potential drug-taking situation (pre-clubbing and post-clubbing at dance clubs, respectively). Participants also provided information on chronic and recent drug use, schizotypal (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), sleep pattern and premorbid IQ. We found that (i) mephedrone users performed worse than non-users pre-clubbing and deteriorated from the pre-clubbing to the post-clubbing assessment; (ii) pre-clubbing cannabis and amphetamine (not mephedrone) use predicted relative cognitive attenuations; (iii) post-clubbing, depression scores predicted relative cognitive attenuations; and (iv) schizotypy was largely unrelated to cognitive functioning, apart from a negative relationship between cognitive disorganisation and verbal fluency. Results suggest that polydrug use and depressive symptoms in the general population negatively affect cognition. For schizotypy, only elevated cognitive disorganisation showed potential links to a pathological cognitive profile previously reported along the psychosis dimension. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 03/2013; 28(2):168-82. DOI:10.1002/hup.2307 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    • " Vollema and Postma , 2002 ; Burch et al . , 2004 ; Krabbendam et al . , 2005 ) . Most important to the present study , cognitive functions relying on the frontal lobes such as cognitive flexibility ( Voglmaier et al . , 1997 ; Diforio et al . , 2000 ; Laurent et al . , 2000 ; Blanchard et al . , 2010 ) , working memory ( Park and McTigue , 1997 ; Voglmaier et al . , 1997 ; Kopp et al . , 2002 ; Voglmaier et al . , 2005 ) , verbal memory ( Burch et al . , 2006 ; Kaczorowski et al . , 2009 ) and verbal fluency ( Laurent et al . , 2000 ; Tsakanikos and Claridge , 2005 ) seem attenuated along the psychosis spectrum including schizotypy ( see also Reichenberg and Harvey , 2007 , for overview ) . A potential "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Mephedrone has been recently made illegal in Europe, but little empirical evidence is available on its impact on human cognitive functions. We investigated acute and chronic effects of mephedrone consumption on drug-sensitive cognitive measures, while also accounting for the influence of associated additional drug use and personality features. Method Twenty-six volunteers from the general population performed tasks measuring verbal learning, verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility before and after a potential drug-taking situation (pre-clubbing and post-clubbing at dance clubs, respectively). Participants also provided information on chronic and recent drug use, schizotypal (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), sleep pattern and premorbid IQ. Results We found that (i) mephedrone users performed worse than non-users pre-clubbing and deteriorated from the pre-clubbing to the post-clubbing assessment; (ii) pre-clubbing cannabis and amphetamine (not mephedrone) use predicted relative cognitive attenuations; (iii) post-clubbing, depression scores predicted relative cognitive attenuations; and (iv) schizotypy was largely unrelated to cognitive functioning, apart from a negative relationship between cognitive disorganisation and verbal fluency. Conclusion Results suggest that polydrug use and depressive symptoms in the general population negatively affect cognition. For schizotypy, only elevated cognitive disorganisation showed potential links to a pathological cognitive profile previously reported along the psychosis dimension.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 03/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous studies have reported that verbal memory function is impaired in subjects with schizotypal PD (Voglmaier et al., 1997; Bergman et al., 1998; Mitropoulou et al., 2005), but it is not impaired in those with psychometric or non-clinical schizotypal traits (Lenzenweger and Gold, 2000; Jahshan and Sergi, 2007; Noguchi et al., 2008). We found, however, that schizotypal traits affected performance on verbal memory, especially delayed recall. "
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