Rapid degeneration of cultured human brain pericytes by amyloid beta protein.
ABSTRACT Amyloid beta protein (A beta) deposition in the cerebral arterial and capillary walls is one of the major characteristics of brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D). Vascular A beta deposition is accompanied by degeneration of smooth muscle cells and pericytes. In this study we found that A beta 1-40 carrying the "Dutch" mutation (HCHWA-D A beta 1-40) as well as wild-type A beta 1-42 induced degeneration of cultured human brain pericytes and human leptomeningeal smooth muscle cells, whereas wild-type A beta 1-40 and HCHWA-D A beta 1-42 were inactive. Cultured brain pericytes appeared to be much more vulnerable to A beta-induced degeneration than leptomeningeal smooth muscle cells, because in brain pericyte cultures cell viability already decreased after 2 days of exposure to HCHWA-D A beta 1-40, whereas in leptomeningeal smooth muscle cell cultures cell death was prominent only after 4-5 days. Moreover, leptomeningeal smooth muscle cell cultures were better able to recover than brain pericyte cultures after short-term treatment with HCHWA-D A beta 1-40. Degeneration of either cell type was preceded by an increased production of cellular amyloid precursor protein. Both cell death and amyloid precursor protein production could be inhibited by the amyloid-binding dye Congo red, suggesting that fibril assembly of A beta is crucial for initiating its destructive effects. These data imply an important role for A beta in inducing perivascular cell pathology as observed in the cerebral vasculature of patients with Alzheimer's disease or HCHWA-D.
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ABSTRACT: The deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) fibrils into plaques within the brain parenchyma and along cerebral blood vessels is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Abeta peptides are produced through the successive cleavage of the Abeta precursor protein by beta- and gamma-secretase, producing peptides between 39 and 43 amino acids in length. The most common of these are Abeta40 (the most abundant) and Abeta42. Abeta42 is more fibrillogenic than Abeta40 and has been implicated in early Abeta plaque deposition. Our previous studies determined that myelin basic protein (MBP) was capable of inhibiting fibril formation of a highly fibrillogenic Abeta peptide containing both E22Q (Dutch) and D23N (Iowa) mutations associated with familial forms of cerebral amyloid angiopathy [Hoos, M. D., et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 9952-9961]. In this study, we show through a combination of biochemical and ultrastructural techniques that MBP is also capable of inhibiting the beta-sheet fibrillar assembly of the normal Abeta42 peptide. These findings suggest that MBP may play a role in regulating the deposition of Abeta42 and thereby also may regulate the early formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease.Biochemistry 05/2009; 48(22):4720-7. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of adjuvant on the T(h)1 and T(h)2 immune responses to Abeta-immunotherapy (Abeta(42 )peptide) was examined in wild-type mice. Fine epitope analysis with overlapping oligomers of the Abeta(42) sequence identified the 1-15 region as a dominant B cell epitope. The 6-20 peptide was recognized only weakly by antisera from mice administrated with Abeta(42) peptide formulated in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), alum or TiterMax Gold (TMG). However, mice immunized with Abeta(42) mixed with QS21 induced a significant antibody response to the 6-20 peptide. The only T cell epitope found was within the 6-28 sequence of Abeta(42). QS21 and CFA induced the strongest humoral response to Abeta, alum was intermediate, and TMG the weakest adjuvant. Analysis of antibody isotypes specific for Abeta indicates that alum induces primarily T(h)2-type immune response, whereas TMG, CFA and QS21 shift the immune responses toward a T(h)1 phenotype. Stimulation of splenocytes from Abeta-immunized mice with Abeta(40) peptide induced strikingly different cytokine expression profiles. QS21 and CFA induced significant IFN-gamma, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression, whereas alum induced primarily IL-4 production. As T(h)1-type immune responses have been implicated in many autoimmune disorders, whereas T(h)2-type responses have been shown to inhibit autoimmune disease, the choice of adjuvant may be critical for the design of a safe and effective immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease.International Immunology 05/2003; 15(4):505-14. · 3.41 Impact Factor
Article: Small heat shock protein HspB8: its distribution in Alzheimer’s disease brains and its inhibition of amyloid-β protein aggregation and cerebrovascular amyloid-β toxicity[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by pathological lesions, such as senile plaques (SPs) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), both predominantly consisting of a proteolytic cleavage product of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). CAA is also the major pathological lesion in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of the Dutch type (HCHWA-D), caused by a mutation in the gene coding for the Aβ peptide. Several members of the small heat shock protein (sHsp) family, such as αB-crystallin, Hsp27, Hsp20 and HspB2, are associated with the pathological lesions of AD, and the direct interaction between sHsps and Aβ has been demonstrated in vitro. HspB8, also named Hsp22 of H11, is a recently discovered member of the sHsp family, which has chaperone activity and is observed in neuronal tissue. Furthermore, HspB8 affects protein aggregation, which has been shown by its ability to prevent formation of mutant huntingtin aggregates. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HspB8 is associated with the pathological lesions of AD and HCHWA-D and whether there are effects of HspB8 on Aβ aggregation and Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity. We observed the expression of HspB8 in classic SPs in AD brains. In addition, HspB8 was found in CAA in HCHWA-D brains, but not in AD brains. Direct interaction of HspB8 with Aβ1–42, Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–40 with the Dutch mutation was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Furthermore, co-incubation of HspB8 with D-Aβ1–40 resulted in the complete inhibition of D-Aβ1–40-mediated death of cerebrovascular cells, likely mediated by a reduction in both the β-sheet formation of D-Aβ1–40 and its accumulation at the cell surface. In contrast, however, with Aβ1–42, HspB8 neither affected β-sheet formation nor Aβ-mediated cell death. We conclude that HspB8 might play an important role in regulating Aβ aggregation and, therefore, the development of classic SPs in AD and CAA in HCHWA-D.Acta Neuropathologica 04/2012; 111(2):139-149. · 9.32 Impact Factor