Article

The effects of chemical treatment of whole canola seed on lipid and protein digestion by steers.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.
Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 2.09). 02/1997; 75(2):502-11.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Five Angus x Simmental steers (average BW 259 kg) cannulated in the rumen, proximal duodenum, and terminal ileum were fed five diets in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 14 d in length, with 10 d of diet adaptation and 4 d of sample collection. The basal diet contained (percentage of diet DM) ammoniated corn cobs (50%), alfalfa hay (22%), cornstarch grits (13%), corn (6.7%), cane molasses (5%), and urea (1.25%). Three canola seed-containing diets and a diet containing Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) were formulated by replacing cornstarch grits from the basal diet with the test feedstuffs. Whole canola seed untreated, crushed, or treated with a caustic alkaline solution and an oxidant were included at 10% of diet DM. The Ca-LCFA diet contained (percentage of diet DM) canola meal (5%) and Megalac (5%). Diets containing untreated, crushed, and treated canola seed and Ca-LCFA contained, on average, 5.6% more total fatty acids than the basal diet. Steers were fed 5.3 kg DM/d (2.05% of initial BW) in 12 equal portions (every 2 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics and digestibilities of OM, GE, N, NDF, and ADF were unaffected (P > .05) by diet. Biohydrogenation of total 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P < .05) for steers fed the crushed canola seed-containing diet (72.0%) than for steers fed the untreated (27.9%) and treated (38.6%) canola seed-containing diets. Digestibility of total 18-carbon fatty acids in the small intestine was greater for steers fed the crushed canola seed (58.9% of duodenal flow) rather than the untreated canola seed (28.4% of duodenal flow) and intermediate for steers fed the treated canola seed (47.0% of duodenal flow). Chemical treatment of whole canola seed may be a viable method for the postruminal delivery of intestinally available unsaturated fatty acids to ruminants.

1 Bookmark
 · 
97 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of feeding high-oil corn on carcass characteristics and meat quality, 60 yearling steers were fed high concentrate diets containing either control corn (82% of diet), high-oil corn (82% of diet), or high-oil corn at a concentration that was isocaloric with the control diet (74% of diet). After being fed for 84 d, steers were slaughtered. At 72 h postmortem, carcass data were collected and rib sections from five steers grading U.S. Choice and five steers grading U.S. Select from each treatment were collected, vacuum packaged, and aged for 14 d. Three steaks (2.54 cm thick) were removed from each rib for Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement, sensory appraisal, and fatty acid composition analyses. Data were analyzed with treatment as the main effect for the carcass data and treatment, quality grade, and two-way interaction in the model for the longissimus data. The two-way interaction was nonsignificant (P > 0.05) for all variables tested. No differences were detected (P > 0.05) in carcass measurements except for marbling scores and quality grades, both of which were greater (P < 0.05) for carcasses from steers fed the high-oil corn. Overall, 78% of steers fed the high-oil corn graded U.S. Choice compared with 47% for the control and 67% for isocaloric group. Shear force and sensory properties of the longissimus were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. Steaks from U.S. Choice carcasses rated higher (P < 0.05) for tenderness and tended to rate higher (P < 0.10) for juiciness. Feeding the isocaloric and high-oil diets increased (P < 0.05) linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and the total PUFA content of lipid extracted from the longissimus. Saturated fatty acid percentage was lowest (P < 0.05) for high-oil corn and highest (P < 0.05) for control, with isocaloric being intermediate. Feeding high-oil corn increased (P < 0.05) pentadecyclic acid, margaric acid, and total odd-chain fatty acid content. Feeding high-oil corn in finishing beef cattle diets enhanced intramuscular lipid deposition and increased unsaturation of fatty acids of the longissimus.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2001; 79(3):582-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three Holstein heifers and one nonlactating cow, fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of degree of fat saturation on ruminal neutral detergent fiber digestion and microbial protein synthesis and to determine whether changes in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were related to protozoal populations in the rumen. Corn silage-based diets contained no added fat or 4.85% of diet dry matter as partially hydrogenated tallow, tallow, or animal-vegetable fat. Iodine values of fat sources were 12.8, 50.6, and 109.7 for partially hydrogenated tallow, tallow, and animal-vegetable fat, respectively. Cattle were fed every 2 h and consumed 1.5% of body weight as dry matter daily. Ruminal neutral detergent fiber digestibility was decreased by added fat but was not affected by increasing iodine value. Flows of microbial N and non-NH3-nonmicrobial N to the duodenum were not affected by treatment. Ruminal protozoa concentration decreased linearly as the iodine value of fats increased. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was increased and protozoa concentrations tended to decrease when fat was fed. Decreased ruminal protozoa concentration may have decreased intraruminal N recycling. Biohydrogenation of added fat may result in a low ruminal concentration of unsaturated fatty acids when cows are fed frequently, reducing the negative effects of unsaturated fat sources on ruminal neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Protozoa were inhibited by unsaturated fat, but it is not clear if biohydrogenation and frequent feeding lessened inhibition.
    Journal of Animal Science 10/2000; 78(9):2412-20. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: and predictor of palatability. Marbling fat is comprised of over 20 individual fatty acids; however, six major fatty acids contribute over 92% of the total fatty acid content (Table 1). These major fatty acids in beef marbling fat are: oleic, palmitic, stearic, linoleic, palmitoleic and myristic acids. Marbling also contains unique fatty acids as a result of ruminal biohydrogenation (hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by rumen bacteria) of dietary lipid. One of these products is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which is a collective term used to describe one or more positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid). Conjugated linoleic acid was first recognized as an anticarcinogen in experiments investigating compounds generated during the cooking of hamburger (13). Conjugated linoleic acid is produced in ruminant animals as the first intermediate in the biohydrogenation of dietary linoleic acid by rumen bacteria such as Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens . Chin et al. (14) reported levels of CLA in ground beef at 3.8 to 4.3 mg/g of lipid. Marbling also contains odd-chain fatty acids like pentadecylic (C15:0) and margaric (C17:0) acids due to the incorporation of propionate instead

Full-text

View
2 Downloads
Available from