Article

The Effects of Chemical Treatment of Whole Canola Seed on Lipid and Protein Digestion by Steers

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.
Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 1.92). 02/1997; 75(2):502-11.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Five Angus x Simmental steers (average BW 259 kg) cannulated in the rumen, proximal duodenum, and terminal ileum were fed five diets in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 14 d in length, with 10 d of diet adaptation and 4 d of sample collection. The basal diet contained (percentage of diet DM) ammoniated corn cobs (50%), alfalfa hay (22%), cornstarch grits (13%), corn (6.7%), cane molasses (5%), and urea (1.25%). Three canola seed-containing diets and a diet containing Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) were formulated by replacing cornstarch grits from the basal diet with the test feedstuffs. Whole canola seed untreated, crushed, or treated with a caustic alkaline solution and an oxidant were included at 10% of diet DM. The Ca-LCFA diet contained (percentage of diet DM) canola meal (5%) and Megalac (5%). Diets containing untreated, crushed, and treated canola seed and Ca-LCFA contained, on average, 5.6% more total fatty acids than the basal diet. Steers were fed 5.3 kg DM/d (2.05% of initial BW) in 12 equal portions (every 2 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics and digestibilities of OM, GE, N, NDF, and ADF were unaffected (P > .05) by diet. Biohydrogenation of total 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids was greater (P < .05) for steers fed the crushed canola seed-containing diet (72.0%) than for steers fed the untreated (27.9%) and treated (38.6%) canola seed-containing diets. Digestibility of total 18-carbon fatty acids in the small intestine was greater for steers fed the crushed canola seed (58.9% of duodenal flow) rather than the untreated canola seed (28.4% of duodenal flow) and intermediate for steers fed the treated canola seed (47.0% of duodenal flow). Chemical treatment of whole canola seed may be a viable method for the postruminal delivery of intestinally available unsaturated fatty acids to ruminants.

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    • "We studied the models of FA apparently absorbed in the small intestine (duodenum flow – ileum flow) as a function of their respective duodenal flows. We excluded three experimental treatments from Aldrich et al. (1997) (whole canola seeds, crushed canola seeds and alkaline-treated canola seeds) that exhibited obviously aberrant intestinal absorption results for several FA compared with the other publications. Indeed, due to the small amount of data on intestinal absorption, a few atypical observations may have a major influence on parameter values in adjusted models. "
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    ABSTRACT: In ruminants, dietary lipids are extensively hydrogenated by rumen micro-organisms, and the extent of this biohydrogenation is a major determinant of long-chain fatty acid profiles of animal products (milk, meat). This paper reports on the duodenal flows of C18 fatty acids and their absorption in the small intestine, using a meta-analysis of a database of 77 experiments (294 treatments). We established equations for the prediction of duodenal flows of various 18-carbon (C18) fatty acids as a function of the intakes of their precursors and other dietary factors (source and/or technological treatment of dietary lipids). We also quantified the influence of several factors modifying rumen metabolism (pH, forage : concentrate ratio, level of intake, fish oil supplementation). We established equations for the apparent absorption of these fatty acids in the small intestine as a function of their duodenal flows. For all C18 unsaturated fatty acids, apparent absorption was a linear function of duodenal flow. For 18:0, apparent absorption levelled off for high duodenal flows. From this database, with fatty acid flows expressed in g/kg dry matter intake, we could not find any significant differences between animal categories (lactating cows, other cattle or sheep) in terms of rumen metabolism or intestinal absorption of C18 fatty acids.
    animal 05/2008; 2(5):691-704. DOI:10.1017/S1751731108002036 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "Criterion for selecting publications was the reporting of both daily FA intake and duodenal (or omasum) FA flows. Two publications were eliminated because reported duodenal flows of FA represented less than 20% of FA intake (Chang et al., 1991) or FA digestion in the intestine was very low compared with the other publications in the database (Aldrich et al., 1997). Publications reporting several experiments were dealt with by assigning a specific code for each experiment. "
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    ABSTRACT: A database built from 95 experiments with 303 treatments was used to quantify the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of fatty acids (FA), efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS), duodenal flow and intestinal absorption of total FA and of FA with 12 to 18 C units, in response to variations in dietary FA content, source or technological treatment of fat supplement. Flows of FA were expressed relative to dry matter intake (DMI) to compile data from bovine and ovine species. BH tended to increase curvilinearly with FA intake, whereas dietary FA did not affect EMPS. A linear relationship between FA intake and duodenal flow of total FA was obtained, with a coefficient of 0.75 ± 0.06 g duodenal FA/kg DMI for each g FA intake/kg DMI. Between experiments, positive balances of total FA (intake - duodenum) were related to low EMPS. Relationships between duodenal flows of FA with 12 to 18 C units and their respective intakes were linear, with a coefficient that increased with the number of C units. Duodenal flow of bacterial FA was linearly related to FA intake (coefficient 0.33 ± 0.13), whereas contribution of bacterial lipid to duodenal flow decreased as FA intake increased. For each FA with 12 to 16 C units, prediction of FA absorption from its respective duodenal flow was linear. For total FA and FA with 18 C units, apparent absorption levelled off at high duodenal flows. All these relationships were discussed according to current knowledge on microbial metabolism in the rumen and on the intestinal digestibility of FA in the intestine.
    animal 05/2008; 2(5):677-90. DOI:10.1017/S1751731108001717 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "One strategy to avoid rumen biohydrogenation is to feed whole oilseeds, because the seed coat prevents the access of rumen microorganisms to the unsaturated FA (Aldrich et al., 1997). The n-3 FA content of muscle has been increased in late-maturing breeds of cattle by feeding forage-based diets supplemented with oils or oilseeds rich in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15-18:3 (ALA), EPA, or DHA (Choi et al., 2000; Scollan et al., 2001a; Raes et al., 2004b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-four Holstein bulls were blocked by initial BW (301 +/- 7.4 kg) and randomly assigned to 6 treatments following a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with 3 concentrate lipid levels (5, 8, and 11% of DM) and 2 lipid sources (whole canola seed and whole linseed), with the objective of evaluating the possibility of increasing the content of n-3 fatty acids in meat. Concentrates (mostly corn meal) were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Concentrate and straw were both fed ad libitum. Animal BW was recorded every 2 wk, and feed consumption was recorded weekly. Ruminal pH and VFA concentrations were determined monthly. Bulls were transported to the slaughterhouse when they achieved the target slaughter weight of 443 kg (after 105 +/- 4 d of fattening). After slaughter, a sample of LM from the sixth to the eighth ribs was dissected and analyzed for intramuscular fat content and fatty acid profile. Dietary lipid source did not affect overall animal performance, rumen fermentation, or carcass quality. Rumen pH was >6.0 despite consumption by the bulls of large amounts of concentrate. In bulls fed linseed, the percentage of n-3 fatty acids in LM increased linearly with lipid level, whereas in bulls fed canola seed it remained constant. The ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids was lower (P < 0.01) in the LM of bulls fed linseed (10.0) than in those fed canola seed (26.0). The content of cis-9, trans-11-CLA in the LM tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in the bulls fed linseed than in those fed canola seed (62.9 vs. 49.2 mg/kg of LM, respectively). Concentration of n-3 fatty acids in meat of bulls fed high-concentrate diets can be enhanced by whole linseed supplementation without affecting animal performance, ruminal fermentation, or carcass quality.
    Journal of Animal Science 12/2006; 84(11):3039-48. DOI:10.2527/jas.2005-632 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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