A mutation study of the DNA binding domain of human papillomavirus type11 E2 protein.
ABSTRACT A site-specific mutation study was performed on the C-terminal domain, containing a cloned DNA binding region, of the human papillomavirus type11 (HPV11) E2 protein to determine the specific properties of residues directly involved in the DNA binding. The effect of a point mutations on the DNA binding was assessed by means of a gel mobility shift assay. The mutagenesis was concentrated on the residues in the third helix from the N-terminal, that is known as the "recognition helix," in the crystal structure of the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E2 protein. Most point mutations caused a great decrease in the DNA binding activity. The leucine repeat in the DNA binding region was proved not to be a leucine prerequisite, as the leucines could be substituted by valine without significant loss of the DNA binding ability. Substitution of Leu for Glu caused a significant decrease in the DNA binding, indicating that the hydrophobicity of the residue at this position is important. The results suggest that the individual contribution of each amino acid residue in the DNA binding region is essential for the DNA binding.
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ABSTRACT: Papillomavirus E2 protein is required for the replication and maintenance of viral genomes and transcriptional regulation of viral genes. E2 functions through sequence-specific binding to 12-bp DNA motifs-E2 binding sites (E2BS)-in the virus genome. Papillomaviruses are able to establish persistent infection in their host and have developed a long-term relationship with the host cell in order to guarantee the propagation of the virus. In this study, we have analyzed the occurrence and functionality of E2BSs in the human genome. Our computational analysis indicates that most E2BSs in the human genome are found in repetitive DNA regions and have G/C-rich spacer sequences. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we show that human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV11) E2 interacts with a subset of cellular E2BSs located in active chromatin regions. Two E2 activities, sequence-specific DNA binding and interaction with cellular Brd4 protein, are important for E2 binding to consensus sites. E2 binding to cellular E2BSs has a moderate or no effect on cellular transcription. We suggest that the preference of HPV E2 proteins for E2BSs with A/T-rich spacers, which are present in the viral genomes and underrepresented in the human genome, ensures E2 binding to specific binding sites in the virus genome and may help to prevent extensive and possibly detrimental changes in cellular transcription in response to the viral protein.Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(1):348-57. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peptide antagonists of the human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) E2-DNA association were identified using a filamentous bacteriophage random peptide library. Synthetic peptides antagonized the E2-DNA interaction, effectively blocked E2-mediated transcriptional activation of a reporter gene in cell culture, and inhibited E1-E2-mediated HPV-11 DNA replication in vitro. These peptides may prove to be useful tools for characterizing E2 function and for exploring the effectiveness of E2-inhibitor-based treatments for HPV-associated diseases.Journal of Virology 04/2004; 78(5):2637-41. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome replicates effectively in U2OS cells after transfection using electroporation. The transient extrachromosomal replication, stable maintenance and late amplification of the viral genome could be studied for high- and low-risk mucosal, and cutaneous papillomaviruses. Recent findings indicate that the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is activated during the HPV life cycle and that the viral replication protein E1 might play a role in this process. We used a U2OS cell-based system to study E1-dependent DDR activation and the involvement of these pathways in viral transient replication. We demonstrated that the E1 protein could cause double strand DNA breaks in the host genome by directly interacting with DNA. This activity leads to the induction of an ATM-dependent signaling cascade and cell cycle arrest in the S and G2 phase. However, the transient replication of HPV genomes in U2OS cells induces the ATR-dependent pathway, as shown by the accumulation of gamma-H2AX, ATRIP and TopBP1 in viral replication centers. Viral oncogenes do not play a role in this activation, which is only induced through DNA replication or by replication proteins E1 and E2. The ATR pathway in viral replication centers is likely activated through DNA replication stress and might play an important role in engaging cellular DNA repair/recombination machinery for effective replication of the viral genome upon active amplification.Journal of Virology 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor