Is Kaposi's sarcoma--associated herpesvirus ubiquitous in urogenital and prostate tissues?
ABSTRACT Controversy exists as to whether Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is more widespread than originally reported. Recently, Monini et al reported that KSHV is ubiquitous in urogenital and prostate tissues and sperm of healthy Italian adults using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We have examined for the presence of KSHV in 10 normal prostates from Italian men and 10 from men from the United States, as well as 32 prostatic, 30 vulvar, 24 ovarian, 20 cervical, and 30 testicular cancer specimens from patients from the United States. None of the patients had a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The samples were tested by nested PCR. The sensitivity of this assay was determined by a dilution study performed by diluting KSHV DNA from the KS-1 cells (a primary effusion lymphoma cell line which is estimated to have 16 copies of KSHV per cell) in DNA from a K562 myeloid cell line. The nested PCR that we used can detect 2.4 copies of KSHV sequences on a background of K562 DNA. All the samples were negative for KSHV sequences. Therefore, we cannot confirm the finding that KSHV sequences are ubiquitous in urogenital and prostate tissues. Furthermore, because our samples were from both the United States and Italy, the discrepancy between results is unlikely to be explained by either ethnic or environmental factors. False-positive results easily occur using nested primer PCR because of contamination. Our data argue that KSHV is not widely disseminated in urogenital tissues from nonimmunosuppressed individuals.
- SourceAvailable from: Eva Hamsíková[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The potential role of genitourinary infection in the etiology of prostate cancer (CaP) has been extensively investigated for 30 years. Two basic approaches have been used: tissue-based methods (polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization) and serologic assays (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, etc.). The objective of this review was to answer the question of whether infection of the male genitourinary tract may have a role in the etiology of CaP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have carried out a systematic review of the evidence that was published in the MEDLINE/PubMed database until December 2011. The search terms included "prostate cancer," "infection," and the explicit names of the various infectious agents. Additional studies were identified using a reference search. A total of 74 papers were included in the review, which cover the following infectious agents: human papillomavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus, BK virus, JC virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, trichomonas, neisseria, treponema, Propionibacterium acnes, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus and Candida albicans. RESULTS: Despite the variable study designs and methodological approaches that were used, most of the pathogens that were studied were unlikely to be directly involved in prostate carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The role of infection in the etiology of CaP has yet to be determined despite 30 years of research efforts. A discovery of an infectious agent that is associated with CaP would be of great medical importance; however, such a link would have to be firmly established before impacting on patient care.Urologic Oncology 03/2012; · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of select oncogenic viruses within vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) and their association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status in women in Botswana, where the national HIV prevalence is the third highest in the world. A cross-sectional study of biopsy-confirmed VSCC specimens and corresponding clinical data was conducted in Gaborone, Botswana. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) viral testing were done for Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, and PCR viral testing alone was done for John Cunningham virus. Human papillomavirus prevalence by PCR was 100% (35/35) among tested samples. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most prevalent HPV strain (82.9% by PCR, 94.7% by either PCR or IHC). Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus prevalence by PCR had a significant association with HIV status (P = 0.013), but not by IHC (P = 0.650). The high burden of HPV, specifically HPV16, in vulvar squamous cell cancer in Botswana suggests a distinct HPV profile that differs from other studied populations, which provides increased motivation for HPV vaccination efforts. Oncogenic viruses Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus were also more prevalent in our study population, although their potential role in vulvar squamous cell cancer pathology is unclear.International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 03/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed type of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality among males worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and the risk of prostate cancer. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI and CBM. The association of HSV-2 or HHV-8 infection with the risk of prostate cancer was separately assessed. Estimates of the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled by the fixed- or random-effects model. A total of 11 articles with 2,996 cases and 3,875 controls were included in this meta-analysis. HSV-2 infection was associated with increased prostate cancer risk (OR=1.209; 95% CI, 1.003-1.456). Results of the stratified analysis suggested that such an association existed among participants from North and South America (OR=1.226; 95% CI, 1.000-1.503). No significant correlation was observed in the HHV-8 group (OR=1.106; 95% CI, 0.765-1.598). Further investigations and large-sample studies are required to elucidate the possible mechanism underlying viral carcinogenesis and the association between herpes virus infection and the risk of prostate cancer.Biomedical reports. 05/2013; 1(3):433-439.