Vascular endothelial growth factor, a possible paracrine growth factor in human acute myeloid leukemia.
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. It is secreted by a variety of tumor cell lines, including hematopoietic lines. Therefore, we investigated expression of VEGF and its receptors on fresh leukemic blasts. VEGF-specific transcripts were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 20 of 28 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in 3 of 5 patients with secondary AML. Using immunocytochemistry, we found VEGF protein in 2 leukemic cell lines and in 8 AML patients, in concordance with PCR results. Supernatants of fresh leukemic cells from 24 AML patients contained significantly more VEGF than supernatants from bone marrow cells of 9 normal donors or of CD34-enriched cells from 3 normal volunteer donors as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VEGF possesses two high-affinity receptors, KDR and FLT1. Using a sensitive nested PCR assay, we detected expression of FLT1 in 10 of 20 patients with de novo AML and 3 of 5 patients with secondary AML. KDR was expressed in 4 of 22 patients with de novo AML and 1 of 4 with secondary AML. To study possible paracrine growth stimulation of AML blasts, endothelial cells from human umbilical cords were incubated with increasing concentrations of VEGF. A dose-dependent increase of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor secretion from endothelial cells was identified.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with dysregulated hematopoietic cell proliferation and increased bone marrow angiogenesis, each regulated by signaling through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). SU5416 is a small molecule inhibitor of VEGF receptors, c-kit and FLT3 and therefore provides a novel opportunity to target both angiogenesis and proliferation in AML. SU5416 was assessed in a phase II hematological malignancy trial in the US, where partial responses were observed in two of 33 patients. Since AML provides a unique platform to evaluate mechanism of action of small molecule inhibitors, investigation of the effect of SU5416 on FLT3 expression and phosphorylation in blood and bone marrow was an additional focus of this trial.Phosphorylated FLT3 was detected by immunoprecipitation/Western analysis in peripheral blood samples from 17 of 22 patients, and seven exhibited strong inhibition of phosphorylation immediately following a 1 h SU5416 infusion, demonstrating that SU5416 can modulate RTK phosphorylation in humans. Although no clear correlation with clinical response was observed, analysis of patient plasma drug levels suggested that a threshold SU5416 concentration of 15 μM was associated with FLT3 inhibition. This observation was supported by data from an ex vivo model where AML cells were spiked into human blood, established to mimic the clinical setting and enable more rigorous analysis of effect of SU5416. In addition, FLT3 protein levels were downregulated in patient bone marrow samples, analyzed by an RIA assay.To identify putative predictors of response, patient plasma was analyzed for levels of secreted ligands of SU5416 targets; SCF and FLT3 ligand. Baseline levels of SCF in patients with stable or progressive disease were significantly higher than those in normal donors, whereas FLT3 ligand levels in patients who exhibited progressive disease were significantly lower than those in normal donors.The translational and clinical analyses described in this report provide some insights into the mechanism and duration of action of SU5416.Leukemia Research 07/2004; 28(7):679-689. DOI:10.1016/S0145-2126(03)00394-1 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is a fundamental element during malignant transformation, the induction of angiogenesis has been proposed to be through angiogenic factors such as the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF).
Article: VEGF and myeloid leukemias[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors participate in the growth and survival of myeloid leukemic progenitors. With the development of multiple anti-angiogenic agents, there is potential that some of these novel agents will have anti-leukemic activity. Since these agents work by mechanisms distinct from current cytotoxic chemotherapies, they may be useful both in chemoresistant leukemia patients and in combinations to improve remission rates and remission durations.Leukemia Research 07/2004; 28(7):675-677. DOI:10.1016/S0145-2126(04)00005-0 · 2.69 Impact Factor