Doppler ultrasonography in suspected intrauterine growth retardation: a randomized clinical trial.
ABSTRACT A randomized clinical trial was performed to test the hypothesis that if suspected intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with normal umbilical artery Doppler ultrasound findings, hospitalization can safely be avoided. One hundred and fifty women with singleton pregnancies and suspected IUGR were randomized between an intervention (n = 74) and a control group (n = 76). In the intervention group, clinicians were strongly requested not to hospitalize for suspected IUGR if the Doppler findings were normal. In the control group, the Doppler results were not revealed and the participants received the standard management for suspected IUGR. Endpoints of the trial were: costs in terms of hospitalization, perinatal outcome, neurological development, and postnatal growth. Duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in the intervention group than in the control group. Contrary to expectations, the hospitalization rate during pregnancy in the intervention group was not below that of the control group. This negative finding was partly due to the admission of patients in the intervention group despite their normal Doppler results. Moreover, the trial might have induced a more critical attitude towards hospitalization in suspected IUGR, decreasing admission in the control group. No clear differences were found in perinatal outcome, neurological development, or postnatal growth. The results suggest that normal umbilical artery Doppler findings in suspected cases of IUGR justify outpatient management.
- SourceAvailable from: Jose Morales Rosello[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the brain sparing mechanism of the fetal vertebral artery (VA), with the one of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in fetuses with increased umbilical artery (UA) Doppler impedance. METHOD: We retrospectively studied 1084 Doppler examinations of the VA, MCA and UA performed in 1084 fetuses between 19 and 41 week of gestation. These were divided into 3 groups according to the UA resistance index (UA RI): group 1: UA RI < 95(th) percentile (N = 965), group 2: UA RI > 95(th) percentile (N = 111) and group 3: absent UA diastolic flow (N = 8). Afterwards, values were converted into multiples of the median (MoM), and means and standard deviations were calculated. Finally, Kruskal-Wallis tests and box and whiskers charts were applied to evaluate differences. RESULTS: For both, the VA RI and MCA RI, no differences were seen among the groups of fetuses who maintained diastolic flow in the UA. However, the VA RI and MCA RI were lower when the UA diastolic flow was absent. CONCLUSION: The VA and MCA work in unison, decreasing impedances only when UA flow is severely affected. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2012.Journal of Clinical Ultrasound 12/2012; · 0.70 Impact Factor
Article: Intrauterine growth restriction.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study reviewed the screening, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of intrauterine growth restriction using the PubMed database for key words and the Cochrane database for systematic reviews. Identification of risk factors and measurement of symphysis-fundus height are currently the screening standards. Diagnosis is verified by ultrasonography. Accuracy of diagnosis may be improved by using customized fetal growth curves, symphysis-fundus height charts, and 3-dimensional ultrasonographic evaluation and measuring umbilical artery Doppler dimensional ultrasonographic evaluation measuring umbilical artery Doppler impedance. Prophylaxis with acetylsalicylic acid, started in the first or second trimester or combined with heparin before conception, may reduce the incidence of growth restriction in specific groups at high risk. Active management may reduce incidence in patients with mild to moderate asthma, and targeted treatment of infections may also be beneficial. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment also reduces the perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with IUGR. Bed rest has no demonstrated beneficial effects.International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 05/2006; 93(1):5-12. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impaired placentation can cause some of the most important obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction and has been linked to increased fetal morbidity and mortality. The failure to undergo physiological trophoblastic vascular changes is reflected by the high impedance to the blood flow at the level of the uterine arteries. Doppler ultrasound study of utero-placental blood vessels, using waveform indices or notching, may help to identify the 'at-risk' women in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, such that interventions might be used to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and/or mortality. To assess the effects on pregnancy outcome, and obstetric practice, of routine utero-placental Doppler ultrasound in first and second trimester of pregnancy in pregnant women at high and low risk of hypertensive complications. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (June 2010) and the reference lists of identified studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of Doppler ultrasound for the investigation of utero-placental vessel waveforms in first and second trimester compared with no Doppler ultrasound. We have excluded studies where uterine vessels have been assessed together with fetal and umbilical vessels. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We checked data entry. We found two studies involving 4993 participants. The methodological quality of the trials was good. Both studies included women at low risk for hypertensive disorders, with Doppler ultrasound of the uterine arteries performed in the second trimester of pregnancy. In both studies, pathological finding of uterine arteries was followed by low-dose aspirin administration.We identified no difference in short-term maternal and fetal clinical outcomes.We identified no randomised studies assessing the utero-placental vessels in the first trimester or in women at high risk for hypertensive disorders. Present evidence failed to show any benefit to either the baby or the mother when utero-placental Doppler ultrasound was used in the second trimester of pregnancy in women at low risk for hypertensive disorders. Nevertheless, this evidence cannot be considered conclusive with only two studies included. There were no randomised studies in the first trimester, or in women at high risk. More research is needed to investigate whether the use of utero-placental Doppler ultrasound may improve pregnancy outcome.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2010; · 5.70 Impact Factor