Pentazocine is a potent ligand at both opioid and sigma receptors, but with opposite stereoselectivities. Whereas (-)-pentazocine has high affinity for a number of opioid receptors, (+)-pentazocine labels sigma 1 receptors. Iodination of (-)-pentazocine at the 3'-position reverses its selectivity for opioid and sigma 1 receptors. 3'-(-)-Iodopentazocine competes at sigma 1 receptor binding sites with a Ki value of 8 nM, compared to approximately 40 nM for (-)-pentazocine. 3'-(-)-Iodopentazocine also has lost its affinity for opioid receptors. In contrast, iodination of (+)-pentazocine lowers its affinity at sigma 1 receptors. Synthesis of [125I]3'-(-)-iodopentazocine is readily performed with incorporations of up to 80%. Binding is of high affinity and shows the selectivity anticipated for a sigma 1 receptor-selective ligand. Exposing membranes prebound with [125I]3'-(-)-iodopentazocine to ultraviolet light can covalently couple the ligand into the membranes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals a major band at about 25 kDa and a minor one at about 20 kDa, indicating photolabeling of sigma 1 receptors with minor incorporation into sigma 2 sites.
"Although (Ϫ)pentazocine labels and opioid binding sites with high affinity, it has only modest affinity for sites. Conversely, (ϩ)pentazocine selectivity labels 1 receptors (K i ϭ 1.8 nM) approximately 500-fold more potently than opioid sites (K i Ͼ 700 nM) and more than 30-fold more potently than 1 binding sites (Chien et al., 1997). Likewise, the ligand BD1047 shows poor affinity for opioid binding sites (K i Ͼ 1000 nM) while labeling 1 sites with very high affinity (K i ϭ 0.9 nM) (Matsumoto et al., 1995). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: sigma Ligands modulate opioid actions in vivo, with agonists diminishing morphine analgesia and antagonists enhancing the response. Using human BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells that natively express opioid receptors and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells transfected with a cloned mu opioid receptor, we now demonstrate a similar modulation of opioid function, as assessed by guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP gamma S) binding, by sigma(1) receptors. sigma Ligands do not compete opioid receptor binding. Administered alone, neither sigma agonists nor antagonists significantly stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. Yet sigma receptor selective antagonists, but not agonists, shifted the EC(50) of opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding by 3- to 10-fold to the left. This enhanced potency was seen without a change in the efficacy of the opioid, as assessed by the maximal stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. sigma(1) Receptors physically associate with mu opioid receptors, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation studies in transfected HEK cells, implying a direct interaction between the proteins. Thus, sigma receptors modulate opioid transduction without influencing opioid receptor binding. RNA interference knockdown of sigma(1) in BE(2)-C cells also potentiated mu opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. These modulatory actions are not limited to mu and delta opioid receptors. In mouse brain membrane preparations, sigma(1)-selective antagonists also potentiated both opioid receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding, suggesting a broader role for sigma receptors in modulating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the effects of (+)pentazocine, a selective sigma(1) ligand, on the uptake of glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 which expresses the low affinity/high capacity peptide transporter PEPT1. Confluent Caco-2 cells were treated with various concentrations of (+)pentazocine for desired time (mostly 24 hr). The activity of PEPT1 was assessed by measuring the uptake of [(14)C]Gly-Sar in the presence of a H(+) gradient. (+)Pentazocine increased the uptake of [(14)C]Gly-Sar mediated by PEPT1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Kinetic analyses have indicated that (+)pentazocine increased the maximal velocity (V(max)) for Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells without affecting the Michaelis-Menten constant (K(t)). In addition, semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that treatment of (+)pentazocine increased PEPT1 mRNA in Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that sigma(1) receptor ligand (+)pentazocine up-regulates PEPT1 in Caco-2 cells at the level of increased mRNA, causing an increase in the density of the transporter protein in the cell membrane.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1999; 261(2):242-6. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1026 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have performed molecular modeling studies on several sigma 1 specific ligands, including PD144418, spipethiane, haloperidol, pentazocine, and others to develop a pharmacophore for sigma 1 receptor-ligand binding, under the assumption that all the compounds interact at the same receptor binding site. The modeling studies have investigated the conformational and electrostatic properties of the ligands. Superposition of active molecules gave the coordinates of the hypothetical 5-point sigma 1 pharmacophore, as follows: R1 (0.85, 7.26, 0.30); R2 (5.47, 2.40, -1.51); R3 (-2.57, 4.82, -7.10); N (-0.71, 3.29, -6.40); carbon centroid (3.16, 4.83, -0.60), where R1, R2 were constructed onto the aromatic ring of each compound to represent hydrophobic interactions with the receptor; and R3 represents a hydrogen bond between the nitrogen atom and the receptor. Additional analyses were used to describe secondary binding sites to electronegative groups such as oxygen or sulfur atom. Those coordinates are (2.34, 5.08, -4.18). The model was verified by fitting other sigma 1 receptor ligands. This model may be used to search conformational databases for other possibly active ligands. In conjunction with rational drug design techniques the model may be useful in design and synthesis of novel sigma 1 ligands of high selectivity and potency. Calculations were performed using Sybyl 6.5.
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 02/2004; 22(3):221-30. DOI:10.1016/j.jmgm.2003.08.001 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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