The clinical phenotype of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (4-hydroxybutyric aciduria): case reports of 23 new patients.
ABSTRACT To further define the clinical spectrum of the disease for pediatric and metabolic specialists, and to suggest that the general pediatrician and pediatric neurologist consider succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in the differential diagnosis of patients with (idiopathic) mental retardation and emphasize the need for accurate, quantitative organic acid analysis in such patients.
The clinical features of 23 patients (20 families) with SSADH deficiency (4-hydroxybutyric acid-uria) are presented. The age at diagnosis ranged from 3 months to 25 years in the 11 male and 12 female patients; consanguinity was noted in 39% of families.
The following abnormalities were observed (frequency in 23 patients): motor delay, including fine-motor skills, 78%; language delay, 78%; hypotonia, 74%; mental delay, 74%; seizures, 48%; decreased or absent reflexes, 39%; ataxia, 30%; behavioral problems, 30%; hyperkinesis, 30%; neonatal problems, 26%; and electroencephalographic abnormalities, 26%. Associated findings included psychoses, cranial magnetic resonance or computed tomographic abnormalities, and ocular problems in 22% or less of patients. Therapy with vigabatrin proved beneficial to varying degrees in 35% of the patients. Normal early development was noted in 30% of patients.
Our data imply that two groups of patients with SSADH deficiency exist, differentiated by the course of early development. Our recommendation would be that accurate, quantitative organic acid analysis in an appropriate specialist laboratory be requested for any patients presenting with two or more features of mental, motor, or language delay and hypotonia of unknown cause. Such analyses are the only definitive way to diagnose SSADH deficiency; the diagnosis can be confirmed by determination of enzyme activity in white cells from whole blood. We think that increased use of organic acid determination will lead to increased diagnosis of SSADH deficiency and a more accurate representation of disease frequency. As additional patients are identified, we should have a better understanding of both the metabolic and clinical profiles of SSADH deficiency.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ernst Christensen, Jun 10, 2015
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ABSTRACT: GHB is a naturally occurring compound in the central nervous system (CNS) whose tissue concentration are highly increased during drug abuse and in the inherited deficiency of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) activity. SSADH deficiency is a neurometabolic-inherited disorder of the degradation pathway of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is biochemically characterized by increased concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in tissues, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood and urine of affected patients. Clinical manifestations are variable, ranging from mild retardation of mental, motor, and language development to more severe neurological symptoms, such as hypotonia, ataxia and seizures, whose underlying mechanisms are practically unknown. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of GHB was investigated on some parameters of oxidative stress, such as chemiluminescence, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), total antioxidant reactivity (TAR), as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in homogenates from cerebral cortex of 15-day-old Wistar rats. In vitro, GHB significantly increased chemiluminescence and TBA-RS levels, while TRAP and TAR measurements were markedly diminished. In contrast, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GPX were not altered by GHB in vitro. Acute administration of GHB provoked a significant enhance of TBA-RS levels and a decrease of TRAP and TAR measurements. These results indicate that GHB induces oxidative stress by stimulating lipid peroxidation and decreasing the non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in cerebral cortex of young rats. If these effects also occur in humans, it is possible that they might contribute to the brain damage found in SSADH-deficient patients and possibly in individuals who consume GHB or its prodrug gamma-butyrolactone.Neurochemistry International 03/2007; 50(3):564-70. DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2006.11.007 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; ALDH5A1) deficiency, a rare metabolic disorder that disrupts the normal degradation of GABA, gives rise to a highly heterogeneous neurological phenotype ranging from mild to very severe. The nature of the mutation has so far been reported in patients from six families world wide and eight different mutations were described. Here we report the mutational spectrum in 48 additional unrelated families of different geographic origin. We detected 27 novel mutations at the cDNA level, of which 26 could be attributed to changes at the genomic level. Furthermore, six mutations were detected that did not strongly affect SSADH activity when expressed in HEK 293 cells and are considered nonpathogenic allelic variants. Twenty of the mutations were only found in one family. The spectrum of disease-causing mutations from all patients sequenced thus far consists of 25 point mutations, four small insertions, and five small deletions. Seven of these mutations affect splice junctions, seven are nonsense mutations, and 12 are missense mutations. Although there were no mutational hotspots or prevalent mutations responsible for a significant number of cases, 14 out of 37 (38%) of the missense alleles were present in exon 4 or 5. With one exception, the missense mutations we consider to be causative of SSADH deficiency reduced the SSADH activity to less than 5% of the normal activity in our in vitro expression system. This indicates that residual expression is not likely to be an important factor contributing to the large phenotypic differences observed among different families and even among siblings, suggesting that other modifying factors are of great importance in disease pathology.Human Mutation 12/2003; 22(6):442-50. DOI:10.1002/humu.10288 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, a rare metabolic disorder of 4-aminobutyric acid degradation, has been identified in approximately 150 patients. Affected individuals accumulate large quantities of 4-hydroxybutyric acid, a compound with a wide range of neuropharmacological activities, in physiological fluids. As a first step in beginning an investigation of the molecular genetics of SSADH deficiency, we have utilized SSADH cDNA and genomic sequences to identify two point mutations in the SSADH genes derived from four patients. These mutations, identified by standard methods of reverse transcription, PCR, dideoxy-chain termination, and cycle sequencing, alter highly conserved sequences at intron/exon boundaries and prevent the RNA-splicing apparatus from properly recognizing the normal splice junction. Each family segregated a mutation in a different splice site, resulting in exon skipping and, in one case, a frameshift and premature termination and, in the other case, an in-frame deletion in the resulting protein. Family members, including parents and siblings of these patients, were shown to be heterozygotes for the splicing abnormality, providing additional evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Our results provide the first evidence that 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, resulting from SSADH deficiency, is the result of genetic defects in the human SSADH gene.The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/1998; 63(2):399-408. DOI:10.1086/301964 · 10.99 Impact Factor