Utilization of supplemental triglycerides or free fatty acids by calves from 4 to 10 weeks of age.
ABSTRACT Our objectives were 1) to determine the effects of increased availability of 2-monoglycerides from triglyceride digestion on absorption of free fatty acids (FFA) and utilization of nutrients by calves of weaning age and 2) to determine whether absorption of FFA increased with age. Thirty-two male Holstein calves were fed milk replacer until d 28 of age and then were assigned, to one of four treatments: 1) control, 80 g/d of whey protein concentrate in 2 L of water; 2) control plus 120 g/d of lard triglycerides; 3) control plus 90 g/d of lard triglycerides plus 30 g/d of lard FFA (low FFA); and 4) control plus 60 g/d of triglycerides plus 60 g/d of lard FFA (high FFA). Treatments were fed by nipple pail twice daily to maintain closure of the esophageal groove. Intake of calf starter (available continuously) was decreased by supplemental fats and tended to be lower for calves fed high FFA than for those fed low FFA. Digestibilities of total C18 fatty acids and total fatty acids were lower for calves fed triglycerides than for calves fed FFA, but digestibilities were not affected by age. Energy digestibility was greater for fat treatments than for controls and was greater for FFA treatments than for triglycerides, but intakes of digestible energy and metabolizable energy did not differ. Absorbed N was greater for calves on the control treatment than for those on the fat treatments, but retained N and average daily gain did not differ. Digestibility of fatty acids was greater for calves fed mixtures of triglycerides and FFA than for those fed triglycerides alone, but digestibility did not change during wk 6 to 10 of age.
- Animal Feed Science and Technology - ANIM FEED SCI TECH. 01/1986; 14:103-115.
- Progress in Lipid Research 02/1979; 18(4):179-216. · 10.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four Holstein cows (84 DIM) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods to determine the effects of increasing amounts of partially hydrogenated tallow in the diet. Tallow replaced ground shelled corn at 0, 2, 4, or 6% of total DM; diets contained 3.3, 5.1, 7.3, and 9.0% total fatty acids. Feces and urine were collected during d 16 to 21 of each period. Milk production (31.1, 31.7, 34.6, and 32.8 kg/d), milk fat content, and DMI (21.2, 20.8, 22.2, and 21.5 kg/d) were not significantly different among diets supplemented with 0, 2, 4, or 6% tallow. Tallow decreased contents of CP and SNF in milk but increased production of NPN. Percentages of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in milk fat decreased linearly, whereas percentage of C18:1 increased with increasing dietary tallow. Ruminal pH, concentrations of total VFA and NH3 N, molar percentages of VFA, and acetate to propionate ratio did not differ among treatments. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, ether extract, energy, and soluble residue did not differ among treatments. Digestibility of total fatty acids decreased in diets containing tallow. Increasing tallow linearly increased N apparently absorbed, but utilization of energy and N was not significantly different among treatments. Partially hydrogenated tallow included at 6% or less of dietary DM did not adversely affect DMI, digestibilities, or ruminal fermentation characteristics.Journal of Dairy Science 02/1993; 76(1):183-96. · 2.57 Impact Factor