Influence of moderate daily wine consumption on body weight regulation and metabolism in healthy free-living males

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.68). 05/1997; 16(2):134-9. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.1997.10718663
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although previous studies have clearly demonstrated that energy from alcohol may not be efficiently utilized to maintain body weight when it comprises 20% or more of the daily caloric intake, there is considerable debate regarding the influence of moderate alcohol consumption (< or = 5% of the total daily caloric intake) upon metabolism, substrate utilization and body weight regulation. Consequently, the objectives of this study were to determine whether moderate alcohol consumption could influence body weight via changes in substrate utilization, oxygen consumption or alterations in dietary macronutrient content.
Fourteen male subjects (mean age = 32.1 years) participated in a 12-week, free-living, crossover trial in which they either drank red wine (270 ml; 13% v/v ethanol) daily for 6 weeks and then abstained for the next 6 weeks or vice-versa.
Whether wine was imbibed or not, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were demonstrated for any of the following variables: body weight, body fat percentage, skinfold thickness, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, caloric intake, dietary macronutrient content, or fasting insulin or glucose concentrations.
In free-living subjects over a 6-week period, the addition of two glasses of red wine to the evening meal does not appear to influence any measured variable which may adversely affect body weight or promote the development of obesity during this time period.

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    • "A recent study in obese humans (The Copenhagen City Heart Study) indicated that prolonged moderate red-wine consumption (but not of other alcoholic beverages) tended to decrease abdominal obesity [6]. However, this effect has not been observed by other authors [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; P<.05) and lower energy intake (269.45 +/- 4.02 KJ/ vs day vs 300.81 +/- 4.52 KJ/; P<.05) and had less fat mass at epididymal location respect to the whole body weight (0.014 +/- 0.001 vs 0.017 +/- 0.001; P<.05) than the HFD group. However, the red wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 02/2006; 17(2):139-42. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.06.005 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    • "A recent study in obese humans (The Copenhagen City Heart Study) indicated that prolonged moderate red-wine consumption (but not of other alcoholic beverages) tended to decrease abdominal obesity [6]. However, this effect has not been observed by other authors [7] [8]. "
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 01/2006; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition to the cross-sectional surveys, most large-scale prospective studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption has a protective effect on the development of NIDDM (Ajani et al. 2000), but one British study (Perry et al. 1995) found a curvilinear trend between alcohol intake and the 13-year follow-up incidence of NIDDM. Experimental data on the long-term impact of alcohol on insulin sensitivity are sparse and do not support the epidemiological findings , as 6 or 10 weeks of moderate wine consumption has been reported to have no effect on fasting insulin levels or sensitivity (Cordain et al. 1997, 2000). The physiological mechanism behind the possible improvement in insulin sensitivity associated with regular moderate alcohol consumption is not obvious, and further experiments with longer intervention periods and a controlled diet should be conducted in order to establish whether the epidemiological observations reflect a true effect of alcohol, or whether they are a result of an unrecognised confounding effect of dietary (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to the impact of alcohol intake on cardiovascular disease. Both cross-sectional and prospective studies have disclosed a negative association between moderate intake of alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular disease. The relationship appears to be present for both wine, beer and spirits. Effects of alcohol itself and also the role of different cardio-protective substances in alcoholic beverages are discussed. Alcohol has been suggested to beneficially affect the blood lipid profile, as it increases plasma HDL-cholesterol level. Furthermore, it may inhibit thrombogenesis by reducing thromboxan formation and decreasing the plasma level of fibrinogen. However, high blood concentrations of alcohol may impair fibrinolysis by increasing plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 level. This action could contribute to explaining the 'U'-shaped association between alcohol intake and cardiac events. Alcohol seems to promote abdominal fat distribution, but the importance of this effect in non-obese individuals is uncertain. Wine in particular, but also beer, contains polyphenols which act as antioxidants. Their action could maintain the integrity of the endothelial function by reducing the formation of superoxide. Moreover, these antioxidants may protect against LDL oxidation and modulate the macrophage attack on the endothelium. Although the cardio-protective effect of alcohol can hardly be addressed in healthy individuals by intervention studies with hard end points, there are many observational and experimental findings indicating that moderate alcohol drinking possesses properties preventive of cardiovascular disease.
    Nutrition Research Reviews 07/2002; 15(1):91-121. DOI:10.1079/NRR200235 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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