Role of specific amino acid residues in T4 endonuclease V that alter nontarget DNA binding.
ABSTRACT Endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific DNA glycosylase-apurinic (AP)1 lyase which, in vivo or at low salt concentrations in vitro, binds nontarget DNA through electrostatic interactions and remains associated with that DNA until all dimers have been recognized and incised. On the basis of the analyses of previous mutants that effect this processive nicking activity, and the recently published cocrystal structure of a catalytically deficient endonuclease V with pyrimidine dimer-containing DNA [Vassylyev, D. G., et al. (1995) Cell 83, 773-782], four site-directed mutations were created, the mutant enzymes expressed in repair-deficient Escherichia coli, and the enzymes purified to homogeneity. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that one of the mutants, Q15R, maintained an efficiency (k(cat)/Km) near that of the wild-type enzyme, while R117N and K86N had a 5-10-fold reduction in efficiency and K121N was reduced almost 100-fold. In addition, K121N and K86N exhibited a 3-5-fold increase in Km, respectively. All the mutants experienced mild to severe reduction in catalytic activity (k(cat)), with K121N being the most severely affected (35-fold reduction). Two of the mutants, K86N and K121N, showed dramatic effects in their ability to scan nontarget DNA and processively incise at pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated DNA. These enzymes (K86N and K121N) appeared to utilize a distributive, three-dimensional search mechanism even at low salt concentrations. Q15R and R117N displayed somewhat diminished processive nicking activities relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. These results, combined with previous analyses of other mutant enzymes and the cocrystal structure, provide a detailed architecture of endonuclease V-nontarget DNA interactions.
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ABSTRACT: Conformational properties of a UV-damaged DNA decamer containing a cis.syn cyclobutane thymine dimer (PD) have been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Results from MD simulations of the damaged decamer DNA show a kink of approximately 21.7 degrees at the PD damaged site and a disruption of H bonding between the 5'-thymine of the PD and its complementary adenine. However, no extra-helical flipping of the 3'-adenine complementary to the PD was observed. Comparison to two undamaged DNA decamers, one with the same sequence and the other with an AT replacing the TT sequence, indicates that these properties are specific to the damaged DNA. Essential dynamics (ED) derived from the MD trajectories of the three DNAs show that the backbone phosphate between the two adenines complementary to the PD of the damaged DNA has considerably larger mobility than the rest of the molecule and occurs only in the damaged DNA. As observed in the crystal structure of T4 endonuclease V in a complex with the damaged DNA, the interaction of the enzyme with the damaged DNA can lead to bending along the flexible joint and to induction of adenine flipping into an extra-helical position. Such motions may play an important role in damage recognition by repair enzymes.Nucleic Acids Research 05/1998; 26(8):1939-46. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fundamental questions in evolution concern deep divisions in the living world and vertical versus horizontal information transfer. Two contrasting views are: (i) three superkingdoms Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya based on vertical inheritance of genes encoding ribosomes; versus (ii) a prokaryotic/eukaryotic dichotomy with unconstrained horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among prokaryotes. Vertical inheritance implies continuity of cytoplasmic and structural information whereas HGT transfers only DNA. By hypothesis, HGT of the translation machinery is constrained by interaction between new ribosomal gene products and vertically inherited cytoplasmic structure made largely of preexisting ribosomes. Ribosomes differentially enhance the assembly of new ribosomes made from closely related genes and inhibit the assembly of products from more distal genes. This hypothesis suggests experiments for synthetic biology: the ability of synthetic genomes to "boot," i.e., establish hereditary continuity, will be constrained by the phylogenetic closeness of the cell "body" into which genomes are placed.BioEssays 08/2009; 31(7):774-83. · 5.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review will present a current understanding of mechanisms for the initiation of base excision repair (BER) of oxidatively-induced DNA damage and the biological consequences of deficiencies in these enzymes in mouse model systems and human populations.Free Radical Research 02/2012; 46(4):460-78. · 3.28 Impact Factor