Role of specific amino acid residues in T4 endonuclease V that alter nontarget DNA binding
ABSTRACT Endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific DNA glycosylase-apurinic (AP)1 lyase which, in vivo or at low salt concentrations in vitro, binds nontarget DNA through electrostatic interactions and remains associated with that DNA until all dimers have been recognized and incised. On the basis of the analyses of previous mutants that effect this processive nicking activity, and the recently published cocrystal structure of a catalytically deficient endonuclease V with pyrimidine dimer-containing DNA [Vassylyev, D. G., et al. (1995) Cell 83, 773-782], four site-directed mutations were created, the mutant enzymes expressed in repair-deficient Escherichia coli, and the enzymes purified to homogeneity. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that one of the mutants, Q15R, maintained an efficiency (k(cat)/Km) near that of the wild-type enzyme, while R117N and K86N had a 5-10-fold reduction in efficiency and K121N was reduced almost 100-fold. In addition, K121N and K86N exhibited a 3-5-fold increase in Km, respectively. All the mutants experienced mild to severe reduction in catalytic activity (k(cat)), with K121N being the most severely affected (35-fold reduction). Two of the mutants, K86N and K121N, showed dramatic effects in their ability to scan nontarget DNA and processively incise at pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated DNA. These enzymes (K86N and K121N) appeared to utilize a distributive, three-dimensional search mechanism even at low salt concentrations. Q15R and R117N displayed somewhat diminished processive nicking activities relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. These results, combined with previous analyses of other mutant enzymes and the cocrystal structure, provide a detailed architecture of endonuclease V-nontarget DNA interactions.
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ABSTRACT: Conformational properties of a UV-damaged DNA decamer containing a cis.syn cyclobutane thymine dimer (PD) have been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Results from MD simulations of the damaged decamer DNA show a kink of approximately 21.7 degrees at the PD damaged site and a disruption of H bonding between the 5'-thymine of the PD and its complementary adenine. However, no extra-helical flipping of the 3'-adenine complementary to the PD was observed. Comparison to two undamaged DNA decamers, one with the same sequence and the other with an AT replacing the TT sequence, indicates that these properties are specific to the damaged DNA. Essential dynamics (ED) derived from the MD trajectories of the three DNAs show that the backbone phosphate between the two adenines complementary to the PD of the damaged DNA has considerably larger mobility than the rest of the molecule and occurs only in the damaged DNA. As observed in the crystal structure of T4 endonuclease V in a complex with the damaged DNA, the interaction of the enzyme with the damaged DNA can lead to bending along the flexible joint and to induction of adenine flipping into an extra-helical position. Such motions may play an important role in damage recognition by repair enzymes.Nucleic Acids Research 05/1998; 26(8):1939-46. · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent structural and biochemical studies have begun to illuminate how cells solve the problems of recognizing and removing damaged DNA bases. Bases damaged by environmental, chemical, or enzymatic mechanisms must be efficiently found within a large excess of undamaged DNA. Structural studies suggest that a rapid damage-scanning mechanism probes for both conformational deviations and local deformability of the DNA base stack. At susceptible lesions, enzyme-induced conformational changes lead to direct interactions with specific damaged bases. The diverse array of damaged DNA bases are processed through a two-stage pathway in which damage-specific enzymes recognize and remove the base lesion, creating a common abasic site intermediate that is processed by damage-general repair enzymes to restore the correct DNA sequence.Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 02/1999; 28:101-28. DOI:10.1146/annurev.biophys.28.1.101 · 18.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most DNA glycosylases including N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), which initiate DNA base excision repair, have a wide substrate range of damaged or altered bases in duplex DNA. In contrast, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is specific for uracil and excises it from both single-stranded and duplex DNAs. Here we show by DNA footprinting analysis that MPG, but not UDG, bound to base-pair mismatches especially to less stable pyrimidine-pyrimidine pairs, without catalyzing detectable base cleavage. Thermal denaturation studies of these normal and damaged (e.g. 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine, varepsilonA) base mispairs indicate that duplex instability rather than exact fit of the flipped out damaged base in the catalytic pocket is a major determinant in the initial recognition of damage by MPG. Finally, based on our determination of binding affinity and catalytic efficiency we conclude that the initial recognition of substrate base lesions by MPG is dependent on the ease of flipping of the base from unstable pairs to a flexible catalytic pocket.Journal of Molecular Biology 08/2002; 320(3):503-13. DOI:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00519-3 · 3.96 Impact Factor