Detection of osteopontin in calcified human aortic valves.
ABSTRACT Cardiac valve calcification often results in obstruction of blood flow, which eventually leads to valve replacement. The molecular mechanisms resulting in valve calcification are unknown. Collagen and specific bone matrix proteins are thought to provide the framework for ectopic tissue calcification. This investigation was performed to determine whether the bone matrix protein osteopontin was present in calcified human aortic valves. Proteins extracted from human aortic valve tissue were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Western blotting, using polyclonal antibodies directed against osteopontin. Fresh frozen tissue sections were also screened for osteopontin and macrophages using immunohistochemical techniques. Osteopontin was present in both heavily and minimally calcified aortic valves and absent in noncalcified purely regurgitant or normal aortic valves by both radioimmunoassay (n = 16) and immunohistochemical techniques (n = 8). Osteopontin colocalized with valvular calcific deposits, and macrophages were identified in the vicinity of osteopontin. These results, in addition to showing that osteopontin is present in calcified human aortic valves, suggest that osteopontin is a regulatory protein in pathological calcification. Identification of the cells producing osteopontin in abnormal cardiac valves and of proximate stimuli for its secretion may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to prevent and/or reverse calcific valve disease.
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ABSTRACT: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is an active process presumably triggered by interplays between cardiovascular risk factors, molecular signaling networks and hemodynamic cues. While earlier studies demonstrated that alterations in fluid shear stress (FSS) on the fibrosa could trigger inflammation, the mechanisms of CAVD pathogenesis secondary to side-specific FSS abnormalities are poorly understood. This knowledge could be critical to the elucidation of key CAVD risk factors such as congenital valve defects, aging and hypertension, which are known to generate FSS disturbances. The objective of this study was to characterize ex vivo the contribution of isolated and combined abnormalities in FSS magnitude and frequency to early valvular pathogenesis. The ventricularis and fibrosa of porcine aortic valve leaflets were exposed simultaneously to different combinations of sub-physiologic/physiologic/supra-physiologic levels of FSS magnitude and frequency for 24, 48 and 72 hours in a double cone-and-plate device. Endothelial activation and paracrine signaling were investigated by measuring cell-adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) and cytokine (BMP-4, TGF-β1) expressions, respectively. Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation was characterized by measuring the expression and activity of the proteases MMP-2, MMP-9, cathepsin L and cathepsin S. The effect of the FSS treatment yielding the most significant pathological response was examined over a 72-hour period to characterize the time-dependence of FSS mechano-transduction. While cytokine expression was stimulated under elevated FSS magnitude at normal frequency, ECM degradation was stimulated under both elevated FSS magnitude at normal frequency and physiologic FSS magnitude at abnormal frequency. In contrast, combined FSS magnitude and frequency abnormalities essentially maintained valvular homeostasis. The pathological response under supra-physiologic FSS magnitude peaked at 48 hours but was then maintained until the 72-hour time point. This study confirms the sensitivity of valve leaflets to both FSS magnitude and frequency and suggests the ability of supra-physiologic FSS levels or abnormal FSS frequencies to initiate CAVD mechanisms.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84433. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, experience with transcatheter aortic valve implantation has led to improved outcomes in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who may not have previously been considered for intervention. These patients are often frail with significant comorbid conditions. As the prevalence of AS increases, there is a need for improved assessment parameters to determine the patients most likely to benefit from this novel procedure. This review discusses the diagnostic criteria for severe AS and the trials available to aid in the decision to refer for aortic valve procedures in the elderly.Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 09/2014; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives This study sought to investigate associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers with aortic valve calcification (AVC). Background Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a common progressive condition that involves inflammatory and calcification mediators. Currently there are no effective medical treatments, but mineral metabolism pathways may be important in the development and progression of disease. Methods We examined associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers, including serum phosphate, urine phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, with CT-assessed AVC at study baseline and in short-term follow-up in 6814 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Results At baseline, AVC prevalence was 13.2%. Higher serum phosphate levels were associated with significantly greater AVC prevalence (relative risk 1.3 per 1 mg/dL increment, 95% confidence incidence: 1.1 to 1.5, p < 0.001). Serum FGF-23, serum PTH, and urine phosphate were not associated with prevalent AVC. Average follow-up CT evaluation was 2.4 years (range 0.9–4.9 years) with an AVC incidence of 4.1%. Overall, phosphate metabolism biomarkers were not associated with incident AVC except in the top FGF-23 quartile. Conclusions Serum phosphate levels are significantly associated with AVC prevalence. Further study of phosphate metabolism as a modifiable risk factor for AVC is warranted.Atherosclerosis 04/2014; 233(2):331–337. · 3.97 Impact Factor