Differential expression of 92-kDa gelatinase in primary atherosclerotic versus restenotic coronary lesions.
ABSTRACT Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in intravascular thrombosis and myocardial infarction (MI), while a common sequelae of de novo atherosclerotic lesions, is an uncommon consequence of restenosis. We hypothesize that the rarity of MI associated with restenotic lesions is a result of cellular and biochemical modifications induced by the local response to mechanical injury rendering the site resistant to rupture. Clinical and angiographic features of patients presenting with symptomatic primary (n = 24) or restenotic coronary lesions (n = 12) who underwent directional atherectomy were compared. Histologic analysis and immunostaining for 92-kDa gelatinase were performed on each atherectomy specimen. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding age, gender, incidence of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or previous MI. Lesion length, extent, and distribution of disease and percent stenosis were not significantly different between groups. However, 8% of primary lesions were hypercellular compared with 75% of restenotic specimens (p = 0.0001). Hypercellularity in restenotic specimens was shown by adjacent section staining to be composed of smooth muscle cells. Ninety-two kDa gelatinase was expressed in 79% of primary lesions versus 0% of restenotic specimens (p = 0.0001). Thrombus was identified in 54% of primary lesions versus 22% of restenotic lesions (p <0.05). These findings suggest that, independent of clinical or angiographic influences, balloon injury induces increased lesion cellularity and reduced expression of 92-kDa gelatinase, possibly resulting in a reduced propensity for plaque rupture and thrombosis.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Increased chronic postprocedural levels of active matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) have been associated retrospectively with a history of in-stent restenosis (ISR). This study aimed to determine whether index or post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) plasma levels of active MMP-9 are a predictor of subsequent clinical ISR, in a standard population of patients treated with bare metal coronary stents. Methods: Four hundred thirty-two patients were prospectively recruited and sampled at index and 3 and 6 months after PCI. Those who developed symptomatic angiographically confirmed ISR were compared to randomly selected, asymptomatic controls, stratified by index presentation in a nested case-control design. Plasma samples were analyzed for the active form of MMP-9. Results: In all, 35 patients (8.1%) developed ISR, and these were compared to 98 controls. The increase in active MMP-9 over 3 months was significantly greater in the ISR group (p = 0.030) and independent of the established risk factors. Index clinical presentation was not associated with acute changes in active MMP-9; however, patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction had greater increases in active MMP-9 at 3 months. Conclusions: The change in active MMP-9 over 3 months after bare metal coronary stent placement appears to be independently associated with the development of ISR in a standard PCI population.Cardiology 01/2013; 124(1):28-35. DOI:10.1159/000345591 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays an important role in cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms underlying in vivo activation of MMP-9 are largely unknown. We investigated the secretion and activation of MMP-9 under a cell-to-cell interaction, and the effects of hypoxia and cytokine. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and THP-1 (human monocyte cell line) were cultured individually, or cocultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In a coculture of HUVEC and THP-1, proMMP-9 secretion was increased twofold compared with individual culture of HUVEC and THP-1, whereas MMP-2 secretion was unchanged. The increase in proMMP-9 secretion was suppressed by antiadhesion molecule antibodies and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, PD98059 (MAPK/ERK kinase1 inhibitor) and SP600125 (Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor). ProMMP-9 secretion was increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α at 50 ng/ml (P < 0.05) but was not activated under normoxic (20%) conditions. ProMMP-9 in coculture was activated under hypoxic (<1%) conditions, and was potentiated by TNF-α (both P < 0.05). To further investigate the mechanism of hypoxia-induced MMP-9 activation, heat shock protein (Hsp)90, which was suggested to be related to MMP-9 activation, was measured by Western blot analysis. The ratio of Hsp90 to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was increased in hypoxic (<1%) coculture conditions with TNF-α (P < 0.05). Treatment with geldanamycin and 17-DMAG (Hsp90 inhibitor) suppressed the active form of MMP-9. Cell-to-cell interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes promotes proMMP-9 synthesis and secretion. Hypoxia and inflammation are suggested to play an important role in activating proMMP-9, presumably via Hsp90.Heart and Vessels 01/2012; 27(6). DOI:10.1007/s00380-011-0214-5 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plaque rupture is the main cause of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerotic plaques have been described to be vulnerable and more prone to rupture when they are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps and contain elevated levels of proteases, including metalloproteinases (MMPs). Initiation of collagen breakdown in plaques requires interstitial collagenases, a MMP subfamily consisting of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13. Previous reports demonstrated that MMP-1 and MMP-13 might be overexpressed in both human and experimental atherosclerosis. Since neutrophils have been only recently reported in atherosclerotic plaques, the role of MMP-8 (formerly known as "neutrophil collagenase") was only marginally evaluated. In this paper, we will update and comment on evidence of the most relevant regulatory pathways and activities mediated by MMP-8 in atherogenesis.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:659282. DOI:10.1155/2013/659282 · 2.42 Impact Factor