Differential expression of 92-kDa gelatinase in primary atherosclerotic versus restenotic coronary lesions.
ABSTRACT Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in intravascular thrombosis and myocardial infarction (MI), while a common sequelae of de novo atherosclerotic lesions, is an uncommon consequence of restenosis. We hypothesize that the rarity of MI associated with restenotic lesions is a result of cellular and biochemical modifications induced by the local response to mechanical injury rendering the site resistant to rupture. Clinical and angiographic features of patients presenting with symptomatic primary (n = 24) or restenotic coronary lesions (n = 12) who underwent directional atherectomy were compared. Histologic analysis and immunostaining for 92-kDa gelatinase were performed on each atherectomy specimen. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding age, gender, incidence of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or previous MI. Lesion length, extent, and distribution of disease and percent stenosis were not significantly different between groups. However, 8% of primary lesions were hypercellular compared with 75% of restenotic specimens (p = 0.0001). Hypercellularity in restenotic specimens was shown by adjacent section staining to be composed of smooth muscle cells. Ninety-two kDa gelatinase was expressed in 79% of primary lesions versus 0% of restenotic specimens (p = 0.0001). Thrombus was identified in 54% of primary lesions versus 22% of restenotic lesions (p <0.05). These findings suggest that, independent of clinical or angiographic influences, balloon injury induces increased lesion cellularity and reduced expression of 92-kDa gelatinase, possibly resulting in a reduced propensity for plaque rupture and thrombosis.
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays an important role in cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms underlying in vivo activation of MMP-9 are largely unknown. We investigated the secretion and activation of MMP-9 under a cell-to-cell interaction, and the effects of hypoxia and cytokine. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and THP-1 (human monocyte cell line) were cultured individually, or cocultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In a coculture of HUVEC and THP-1, proMMP-9 secretion was increased twofold compared with individual culture of HUVEC and THP-1, whereas MMP-2 secretion was unchanged. The increase in proMMP-9 secretion was suppressed by antiadhesion molecule antibodies and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, PD98059 (MAPK/ERK kinase1 inhibitor) and SP600125 (Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor). ProMMP-9 secretion was increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α at 50 ng/ml (P < 0.05) but was not activated under normoxic (20%) conditions. ProMMP-9 in coculture was activated under hypoxic (<1%) conditions, and was potentiated by TNF-α (both P < 0.05). To further investigate the mechanism of hypoxia-induced MMP-9 activation, heat shock protein (Hsp)90, which was suggested to be related to MMP-9 activation, was measured by Western blot analysis. The ratio of Hsp90 to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was increased in hypoxic (<1%) coculture conditions with TNF-α (P < 0.05). Treatment with geldanamycin and 17-DMAG (Hsp90 inhibitor) suppressed the active form of MMP-9. Cell-to-cell interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes promotes proMMP-9 synthesis and secretion. Hypoxia and inflammation are suggested to play an important role in activating proMMP-9, presumably via Hsp90.Heart and Vessels 01/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The response of the arterial vascular wall to injury is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a process requiring metalloproteinase production. This migration is induced by cytokines, however the agonists involved are not fully defined. The CC chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8) is expressed on monocytes and T lymphocytes and is the sole receptor for the human CC chemokine 1 (CCL1, I-309) and for the viral chemokine, vCCL1 (viral macrophage inflammatory protein 1 [vMIP-1]). We have reported that CCR8 is expressed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mediates chemotaxis induced by CCL1. The conditioned medium from incubation mixtures of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and HUVECs (LCM) contained CCL1 and stimulated both monocyte and HUVEC chemotaxis, providing novel mechanisms for the atherogenicity of Lp(a). We now report that CCL1, vCCL1, and LCM stimulate chemotaxis of human VSMCs that is blocked by murine monoclonal antibody against CCR8 and by the G-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin. The effect of anti-CCR8 was specific, as this antibody failed to effect the chemotaxis of VSMCs in response to CCL3 or by platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB). VSMCs contained CCR8 mRNA and CCR8 antigen coprecipitated with VSMC membranes. Antibodies against metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibited the CCL1-induced chemotaxis of VSMCs, whereas anti-MMP-9 was less effective. CCL1 induced VSMC pro-MMP-2 mRNA and protein secretion. Poxvirus MC148 inhibited the increase in MMP-2 induced by CCL1, documenting that CCR8 was the receptor responsible. In mouse femoral arteries, CCR8 and TCA3 antigen colocalized with VSMCs and were up-regulated after injury. The induction of CCR8 and CCL1/TCA3 under conditions associated with VSMC proliferation and migration raises the possibility that CCR8 may play an important role in vessel wall pathology.Blood 03/2004; 103(4):1296-304. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix, are emerging as important modulators of atherothrombosis. MMPs are produced by inflammatory cells; some of them are also released by activated platelets and play a crucial role in the remodeling processes, leading to atherosclerotic plaque formation, plaque rupture, arterial aneurysm development, and critical limb ischemia. Independent from their matrix degrading activity, MMPs also regulate some cell functions relevant to atherothrombosis, such as platelet activation, neutrophil activation, and vascular reactivity. Plasma levels of some MMPs are increasingly being recognized as a biomarker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. In peripheral arterial disease, MMPs have been shown to be involved in angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and the development of arterial calcifications. Increased plasma levels of some MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9) have been correlated with PAD development and severity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes encoding for some MMPs have also been associated with the risk of developing peripheral arterial disease and critical limb ischemia. Large prospective observational studies are needed to further demonstrate the role of MMPs in PAD. In perspective, pharmacologic targeting of the expression or activity of MMPs may represent a novel, attractive approach for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease.Internal and Emergency Medicine 09/2009; · 2.35 Impact Factor