Differential Expression of 92-kDa Gelatinase in Primary Atherosclerotic Versus Restenotic Coronary Lesions
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of California Medical Center, San Diego 92103-8411, USA. The American Journal of Cardiology
(Impact Factor: 3.28).
05/1997; 79(7):878-82. DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9149(97)00007-6
Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in intravascular thrombosis and myocardial infarction (MI), while a common sequelae of de novo atherosclerotic lesions, is an uncommon consequence of restenosis. We hypothesize that the rarity of MI associated with restenotic lesions is a result of cellular and biochemical modifications induced by the local response to mechanical injury rendering the site resistant to rupture. Clinical and angiographic features of patients presenting with symptomatic primary (n = 24) or restenotic coronary lesions (n = 12) who underwent directional atherectomy were compared. Histologic analysis and immunostaining for 92-kDa gelatinase were performed on each atherectomy specimen. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding age, gender, incidence of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or previous MI. Lesion length, extent, and distribution of disease and percent stenosis were not significantly different between groups. However, 8% of primary lesions were hypercellular compared with 75% of restenotic specimens (p = 0.0001). Hypercellularity in restenotic specimens was shown by adjacent section staining to be composed of smooth muscle cells. Ninety-two kDa gelatinase was expressed in 79% of primary lesions versus 0% of restenotic specimens (p = 0.0001). Thrombus was identified in 54% of primary lesions versus 22% of restenotic lesions (p <0.05). These findings suggest that, independent of clinical or angiographic influences, balloon injury induces increased lesion cellularity and reduced expression of 92-kDa gelatinase, possibly resulting in a reduced propensity for plaque rupture and thrombosis.
Available from: Sébastien Lenglet
- "Effectively, the upregulation of intraplaque MMP- 9 leads to the increase of plaque hemorrhage and rupture in mouse models . e analysis of human coronary lesions has revealed active synthesis of MMP-9 by macrophages and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in plaques of patients with acute coronary syndromes but not in those with stable angina . "
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ABSTRACT: Plaque rupture is the main cause of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerotic plaques have been described to be vulnerable and more prone to rupture when they are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps and contain elevated levels of proteases, including metalloproteinases (MMPs). Initiation of collagen breakdown in plaques requires interstitial collagenases, a MMP subfamily consisting of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13. Previous reports demonstrated that MMP-1 and MMP-13 might be overexpressed in both human and experimental atherosclerosis. Since neutrophils have been only recently reported in atherosclerotic plaques, the role of MMP-8 (formerly known as "neutrophil collagenase") was only marginally evaluated. In this paper, we will update and comment on evidence of the most relevant regulatory pathways and activities mediated by MMP-8 in atherogenesis.
Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013(33):659282. DOI:10.1155/2013/659282 · 3.24 Impact Factor
Available from: Marek Witold Radomski
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ABSTRACT: We have recently found matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in human platelets and reported that the release of this enzyme during platelet activation stimulates aggregation. We have now identified matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human platelets and resistance-sized (approximately 200 microm) arteries. Resting platelets released small quantities of pro-MMP-9. Maximal release of MMP-9 was detected during partial (appr. 30% maximum) aggregation with thrombin. However, maximal release of MMP-2 was associated with maximal aggregation. MMP-9 antibodies induced aggregation of resting platelets and potentiated aggregation of platelets induced by thrombin and collagen. Moreover, MMP-9 microisolated from arteries as well as recombinant human MMP-9 (0.1-30 ng/ml) inhibited thrombin and collagen-induced aggregation. We conclude that MMP-9 is an inhibitor of aggregation and in this action opposes the effects of MMP-2. The MMP-2/MMP-9 system may play an important role in the regulation of platelet-platelet and platelet-vessel wall interactions.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/1999; 82(6):1730-5. · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In response to vascular injury, smooth muscle cells migrate from the media into the intima, where they contribute to the development of neointimal lesions. Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression contributes to the migratory response of smooth muscle cells by releasing them from their surrounding extracellular matrix. MMPs may also participate in the remodeling of extracellular matrix in vascular lesions that could lead to plaque weakening and subsequent rupture. Neurotrophins and their receptors, the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are expressed in neointimal lesions, where they induce smooth muscle cell migration. We now report that nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced activation of the TrkA receptor tyrosine kinase induces MMP-9 expression in both primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells and in a smooth muscle cell line genetically manipulated to express TrkA. The response to NGF was specific for MMP-9 expression, as the expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, or the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 was not changed. Activation of the Shc/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates the induction of MMP-9 in response to NGF, as this response is abrogated in cells expressing a mutant TrkA receptor that does not bind Shc and by pretreatment of cells with the MEK-1 inhibitor, U0126. Thus, these results indicate that the neurotrophin/Trk receptor system, by virtue of its potent chemotactic activity for smooth muscle cells and its ability to induce MMP-9 expression, is a critical mediator in the remodeling that occurs in the vascular wall in response to injury.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2002; 277(3):2353-9. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M108989200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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