Nitric oxide induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression and carbon monoxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT Since recent studies demonstrate that vascular smooth muscle cells synthesize two distinct guanylate cyclase-stimulatory gases, NO and CO, we examined possible regulatory interactions between these two signaling molecules. Treatment of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with the NO donors, sodium nitroprusside, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine, or 3-morpholinosydnonimine, increased heme oxygenase-I (HO-1) mRNA and protein levels in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Both actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked NO-stimulated HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that NO donors increased HO-1 gene transcription between 3- and 6-fold. In contrast, NO donors had no effect on the stability of HO-1 mRNA. Incubation of vascular smooth muscle cells with the membrane-permeable cGMP analogues, dibutyryl cGMP and 8-bromo-cGMP, failed to induce HO-1 gene expression. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells with NO donors also stimulated the production and release of CO, as demonstrated by the CO-dependent increase in intracellular cGMP levels in coincubated platelets. Finally, incubating vascular smooth muscle cells with interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced NO synthesis and also significantly increased the level of HO-1 protein. The cytokine-stimulated production of both NO and HO-1 protein in smooth muscle cells was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor methyl-L-arginine. These results demonstrate that exogenously administered or endogenously released NO stimulates HO-1 gene expression and CO production in vascular smooth muscle cells. The ability of NO to induce HO-catalyzed CO release from vascular smooth muscle cells provides a novel mechanism by which NO might modulate soluble guanylate cyclase and, thereby, vascular smooth muscle cell and platelet function.
- SourceAvailable from: Bernardo Ventimiglia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The products of vitagenes such as heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32, heme oxygenase 1) and Hsp70, the family of inducible cytoprotective proteins regulated by the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, and small molecule antioxidants such as glutathione provide the cell with powerful means to counteract and survive various conditions of stress. Among these protective systems, the heat shock proteins represent a highly conserved and robust way for preservation of correct protein conformation, recovery of damaged proteins, and cell survival. Their regulation is dependent on the redox status of the cell, thus redox regulation is rapidly evolving as an important metabolic modulator of cellular functions, and is being increasingly implicated in many chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Protein thiols play a key role in redox sensing, and regulation of cellular redox state is crucial mediator of multiple metabolic, signalling and transcriptional processes in the brain. Nitric oxide, and reactive nitrogen species induce the transcription of vitagenes and Keap1/Nrf2/ARE-dependent genes whose functional products protect against a wide array of subsequent challenges. Emerging interest is now focusing on exogenous small molecules that are capable of activating these systems as a novel target to minimize deleterious consequences associated with free radical-induced cell damage, such as during neurodegeneration. This chapter describes methods that can be used to assess the expression of heat shock proteins and the cellular glutathione redox status and discusses their relevance to mechanisms modulating the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases.Methods in Enzymology 02/2008; 441:83-110. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(08)01206-8 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation resulting in the formation of iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin, which is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. The biological effects exerted by the products of this enzymatic reaction have gained much attention. The anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions associated with HO-1 are attributable to one or more of its degradation products. Induction of HO-1 occurs as an adaptive and beneficial response to several injurious stimuli including heme and this inducible nature of HO-1 signifies its importance in several pathophysiological disease states. The beneficial role of HO-1 has been implicated in several clinically relevant disease states involving multiple organ systems as well as significant biological processes such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammation/immune dysfunction and transplantation. HO-1 has thus emerged as a key target molecule with therapeutic implications.Acta biochimica Polonica 02/2005; 52(2):273-84. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the degradation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide and iron, and its expression can be used as a marker for oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been reported to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. It is possible that oxidative stress is also involved in the disease process seen in scrapie, the archetype transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. In this study, we report that HO-1 is significantly increased in the scrapie-infected group compared to an age-matched control group. Immunohistochemistry showed a pronounced increase of immunostaining of this protein in the infected group compared to the minimal amount of staining in the control group. These results support that oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of scrapie and that it might contribute to neurodegeneration in this disease.Neuroscience Letters 09/2000; 289(3):173-6. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3940(00)01277-5 · 2.06 Impact Factor