Nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment: current realities and future.
ABSTRACT Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) is reduced 10-fold, but the patient dropout rate is up to 30%, and usage is typically < 5 hours per night. Titration, designed to make the best trade-off between effectiveness and side effects, is expensive. Autotitrating devices make this trade-off on a minute-by-minute basis, potentially reducing mean pressure delivery, reducing side effects, and increasing compliance. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of the AutoSet self-adjusting nasal CPAP system (ResMed, Sydney, Australia) in eliminating obstructive events and normalizing the arousal index. Forty-five subjects (41 males and 4 females with AHI) values of > 20/hour were recruited, with written informed consent. Subjects slept for a diagnostic night, followed by a treatment night, in the laboratory, using the AutoSet system with full polysomnographic monitoring of respiratory and sleep variables. Arousals were scored using ASDA criteria. Hypopneas were scored when there was a 50% reduction in ventilation for > 10 seconds, associated with a 4% drop in oxygen saturation. For comparison, the ASDA arousal index in 16 normal subjects (without nasal CPAP) is provided. Results are given as mean +/- standard error of the mean. AHI was reduced from 55 +/- 3 to 1.5 +/- 0.35 events/hour (p < 0.0001). The arousal index was reduced from 65 +/- 3 to 18 +/- 2 events/hour (p < 0.0001), identical to the value in the 16 healthy normal subjects. There was a 158% +/- 21% increase in slow-wave sleep (p = 0.01) and a 186% +/- 27% increase in rapid eye movement sleep (p = 0.013). The AutoSet self-adjusting nasal CPAP system adequately treats obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the first night under laboratory conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used to treat patients with sleep related breathing disorders (SRBDs), including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). After a patient is diagnosed with OSA, the current standard of practice involves performing attended polysomnography (PSG), during which positive airway pressure is adjusted throughout the recording period to determine the optimal pressure for maintaining upper airway patency. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) represent the two forms of PAP that are manually titrated during PSG to determine the single fixed pressure of CPAP or the fixed inspiratory and expiratory positive airway pressures (IPAP and EPAP, respec- tively) of BPAP for subsequent nightly usage. A PAP Titration Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine reviewed the avail- able literature. Based on this review, the Task Force developed these recommendations for conducting CPAP and BPAP titrations. Major recommendations are as follows: (1) All potential PAP titration candi- dates should receive adequate PAP education, hands-on demonstra- tion, careful mask fitting, and acclimatization prior to titration. (2) CPAP (IPAP and/or EPAP for patients on BPAP) should be increased until the following obstructive respiratory events are eliminated (no spe- cific order) or the recommended maximum CPAP (IPAP for patients on BPAP) is reached: apneas, hypopneas, respiratory effort-related arousals (RERAs), and snoring. (3) The recommended minimum start- ing CPAP should be 4 cm H2O for pediatric and adult patients, and the recommended minimum starting IPAP and EPAP should be 8 cm H2O and 4 cm H2O, respectively, for pediatric and adult patients on
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ABSTRACT: Prospektive, randomisierte, einfach-blinde cross-over Studie von nCPAP und AutoCPAP bei Patienten mit reduzierter Compliance unter herkoemmlicher nCPAP-Therapie und Schlafapnoe Thesis about effects of Auto Set T on patient compliance with obstructive sleep apnoea.