Borderline methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains have more in common than reduced susceptibility to penicillinase-resistant penicillins.

Institute of Microbiology, University of Ancona Medical School, Italy.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.45). 01/1997; 40(12):2769-74.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ten epidemiologically unrelated Staphylococcus aureus isolates with borderline levels of susceptibility to antistaphylococcal penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs) were investigated together with appropriate S. aureus control strains. By a nitrocefin microplate assay, all borderline PRP-susceptible test strains were found to produce comparable amounts of beta-lactamase. Hydrolytic activity against another chromogenic substrate (PADAC) and against the PRPs was also demonstrated in membrane preparations from induced cells of 9 of the 10 borderline test strains. When bacterial membranes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two methicillin-inducible bands of about 32 and 31 kDa were detected, after Coomassie blue staining, in the membrane protein patterns of the same nine borderline test strains. By gel renaturation and zymographic detection of beta-lactamase activity, both methicillin-inducible membrane proteins were detected with nitrocefin as a substrate, whereas only one band (presumably the smaller protein) was detected with PADAC. With the remaining borderline test strain (a40), only the larger band was detected in the renatured gels with nitrocefin as a substrate. Plasmid DNA analysis revealed that the borderline susceptible test strains, again with the exception of a40, shared a 17.2-kb plasmid yielding four HindIII fragments of 7.0, 5.3, 3.5, and 1.4 kb. In Western blot (immunoblot) experiments using rabbit antiserum to penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 2a, test strain a40, which did not share a number of features characteristically associated with the other borderline test strains, was eventually shown to produce PBP 2a. Five other S. aureus strains, belonging to phage group 94/96, were found to display the borderline phenotype, including such distinguishing features as the membrane-associated PRP- and PADAC-hydrolyzing activity, the two methicillin-inducible membrane proteins, and the 17.2-kb plasmid. These results suggest that borderline susceptible S. aureus strains share more common features than reduced susceptibility to PRPs.

Download full-text


Available from: Orietta Massidda, Jul 01, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in dairy animals is of great concern for livestock and public health. The aim of present study was to detect new trends of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) towards antibiotic susceptibility, resistance genes and molecular typing by methods of disc diffusion, multiplex PCR assay and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 219 S. aureus strains were isolated from bovine mastitis cases from six provinces of China, including 34 MRSA strains. The results revealed that more than 70% isolated strains showed resistance to various antibiotics, and multiple-drugs resistance to more than five categories of antibiotics was found more common. The ermC was the most prevalent resistance gene, followed by other genes; however, ermA was the least frequently detected gene. Twenty-eight mecA-negative MRSA and six mecA-positive MRSA strains were detected, and in which three strains were ST97-MRSA-IV, others were ST965-MRSA-IV, ST6-MRSA-IV and ST9-MRSA-SCCmec-NT. The mecA-negative MRSA strains were found resistant to most of the antibiotics, and harbored aac(6')/aph(2''), aph(3')-III and tetM genes higher than MSSA strains. The resistance to most of the antibiotics was significantly higher in MRSA than in MSSA strains. The MLST profiles showed that these strains mainly belonged to CC5, CC398, CC121 and CC50 lineage, especially within ST97 and ST398, while some novel sequence types (ST2154, ST2165 and ST2166) were identified and deposited in the MLST database. This indicates that the resistance of S. aureus is becoming more complicated by changes in multi-drug resistance mechanism and appearance of mecA-negative MRSA isolates, and importantly, MRSA-IV strains in different MLST types are emerging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 01/2015; 31C:9-16. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2014.12.039 · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare several methods for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food. Two hundred S. aureus isolates from food of animal origin were screened for methicillin resistance by a PCR assay specific for the mecA gene, an oxacillin agar screen test and a cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Six out of 200 strains (3%) were found to be methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by PCR. The oxacillin agar screen test detected only one of the MRSA isolates (sensitivity of 16.7%) and mischaracterized three additional strains as MRSA (specificity of 98.45%). None of the MRSA strains was detected by the cefoxitin test (sensitivity of 0%), while 15 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains were misclassified as resistant (specificity of 92.3%). Fifteen MSSA strains displayed a beta-lactamase hyperproducer-like phenotype. The six MRSA (mecA-positive) strains resembled the characteristics of heteroresistant strains. As MRSA of animal origin may display atypical phenotypes, PCR appears to be more reliable for detection of methicillin resistance in animal strains. The study stresses the need for implementing the methods of screening S. aureus from food of animal origin for methicillin resistance.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 12/2007; 45(5):535-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02226.x · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Selective pressure from antimicrobial use, mutations, or acquisition of foreign resistance determinants mediate antimicrobial resistance. If antimicrobial use is the major selective pressure encouraging the development of resistance, then reduced use should result in decreased resistance. We compared antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from milk samples from 22 organic (nonantibiotic using) dairy herds to isolates from 16 conventional dairy herds. Susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion, and zone diameters were recorded in millimeters for 144 isolates from organic farms and 117 isolates from conventional farms and were also classified as susceptible or not-susceptible (intermediate and resistant categories combined). Strength of association between high or low use and proportion susceptible was evaluated by Chi-square analysis and differences in mean zone diameter for isolates from organic farms versus isolates from conventional farms were compared by analysis of variance. Analysis was done for each antimicrobial and deemed significant at p < or = 0.05. Differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were observed between S. aureus isolates from organic and conventional herds for seven of the nine antibiotics studied. Herds that were certified organic had S. aureus isolates that were more susceptible to antimicrobials. Overall, S. aureus isolates from both organic and conventional herds showed good susceptibility to most commonly used bovine mastitis antimicrobials; however, isolates from organic herds were significantly more susceptible. Longitudinal studies of herds undergoing the transition to organic farming would help elucidate the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance and the potential return of antimicrobial susceptibility.
    Microbial Drug Resistance 10/2003; 9 Suppl 1:S39-45. DOI:10.1089/107662903322541883 · 2.52 Impact Factor