Overview of the etiology of wound infections with particular emphasis on community-acquired illnesses

Microbial Diseases Laboratory, Division of Communicable Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Berkeley 94704, USA.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 04/1997; 16(3):189-201. DOI: 10.1007/BF01709581
Source: PubMed


Wound cultures represent a general catchall category for a group of extremely diverse anatomic samples that range from superficial specimens of cutaneous structures (folliculitis, cellulitis) to specimens revealing invasive infections involving deep fascial planes and muscle (myonecrosis). Because of the complex nature of these infective processes, the terminology associated with such infections is often imprecise and confusing. Wounds are the result of trauma, either intentionally or accidentally induced. Nosocomial wound infections result primarily from surgical procedures, the development of pressure sores, or catheterization. Community-acquired wound infections are often preceded by injuries resulting from occupational exposure or recreational activities and are associated with a greater diversity of microorganisms due to the exposure of open wounds to inhabitants of the microbial biosphere. This review provides a general overview of the categories of wound infections and describes their acquisition and clinical significance. Particular emphasis is placed on selected community-acquired wound infections and the etiologic agents associated with such conditions.

9 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tuna fish traded in retail stores in the south region of the city of São Paulo, 112 samples were collected, 56 during the winter of 2003 (June and July) and 56 during the summer of 2003-2004 (December to January). Most probable number (MPN) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was determined, and a comparison on the contamination level observed in the two periods was drawn. Strains were analyzed in relation to urease production, Kanagawa phenomenon and sensitivity to antibiotics. Only 2.68% of the samples were positive (3/112), two of them collected in the summer (3 and 4 NMP/g) and one, in the winter (3 NMP/g). All Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated were Kanagawa and urease negative, did not show any pathogenic characteristic and were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, streptomycin, penicillin G, polymyxin B and vancomycin; intermediately susceptible to ciprofloxacin, kanamycin and gentamicin; and sensitive to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. It may be concluded that, in the conditions of this study, fresh raw tuna, mainly consumed as sashimi, is considered a low risk food in relation to toxigenic infection by Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been almost 10 years since a major review on the association of Aeromonas with human disease has been published. During that period the number of valid species in the genus has grown to 14, with a new family (Aeromonadaceae) established to house this genus. Despite this explosion in the number of new genomospecies, only five (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, A. jandaei, and A. schubertii) are currently recognized as human pathogens. New syndromes attributed to this genus include hemolytic uremic syndrome, burn-associated sepsis, and a variety of respiratory tract infections, including epiglottitis. Convincing evidence suggests that some aeromonads do cause gastroenteritis, but it is presently unclear whether many of the strains isolated from feces are involved in diarrheal disease. Many questions regarding this genus remain unanswered.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/1998; 27(2):332-44. DOI:10.1086/514652 · 8.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to test the immune response generated to small amounts of foreign protein in skin, we applied naked DNA in aqueous solution to untreated normal skin. Topical application of plasmid expression vectors for lacZ and the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to intact skin induced antigen-specific immune responses that displayed TH2 features. For HBsAg, specific antibody and cellular responses were induced to the same order of magnitude as those produced by intramuscular injection of the commercially available recombinant HBsAg polypeptide vaccine. Finally, topical gene transfer was dependent on the presence of normal hair follicles.
    Nature Biotechnology 10/1999; 17(9):870-2. DOI:10.1038/12856 · 41.51 Impact Factor
Show more