Overview of the etiology of wound infections with particular emphasis on community-acquired illnesses.
ABSTRACT Wound cultures represent a general catchall category for a group of extremely diverse anatomic samples that range from superficial specimens of cutaneous structures (folliculitis, cellulitis) to specimens revealing invasive infections involving deep fascial planes and muscle (myonecrosis). Because of the complex nature of these infective processes, the terminology associated with such infections is often imprecise and confusing. Wounds are the result of trauma, either intentionally or accidentally induced. Nosocomial wound infections result primarily from surgical procedures, the development of pressure sores, or catheterization. Community-acquired wound infections are often preceded by injuries resulting from occupational exposure or recreational activities and are associated with a greater diversity of microorganisms due to the exposure of open wounds to inhabitants of the microbial biosphere. This review provides a general overview of the categories of wound infections and describes their acquisition and clinical significance. Particular emphasis is placed on selected community-acquired wound infections and the etiologic agents associated with such conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Aeromonas sobria causes pus and edema at sites of infection. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. C5a, the amino-terminal fragment of the complement 5th component (C5), mimics these events. To investigate the involvement of C5a in the pathophysiology of A. sobria infection, we examined release of C5a from human C5 by a serine protease (ASP), a putative virulence factor secreted by this bacterium. C5 incubated with enzymatically active ASP induced neutrophil migration in a dose-dependent manner from an ASP concentration of 3 nM and in an incubation time-dependent manner in as little as 7 min, with neutrophil accumulation in guinea pigs at intradermal injection sites and neutrophil superoxide release. These effects on neutrophils were inhibited by a C5a-receptor antagonist. The ASP incubation mixture with C5 but not C3 elicited vascular leakage in a dose- and incubation time-dependent manner, which was inhibited by a histamine H(1)-receptor antagonist. Together with these C5a-like activities, ASP cleaved C5 to release only one C5a Ag, the m.w. of which was similar to that of C5a. Immunoblotting using an anti-C5a Ab revealed generation of a C5a-like fragment from human plasma incubated with ASP. These results suggest that ASP-elicited neutrophil migration and vascular leakage via C5a production from C5 could occur in vivo, which was supported by that ASP did not affect functions of C5a and neutrophil C5a receptor. Through C5a generation, ASP could be associated with the induction of pus and edema caused by infection with this bacterium.The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(5):3602-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The in vitro activities of povidone iodine, potassium peroxymonosulfate, and dimethyldidecylammonium chloride were investigated against 379 nosocomial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa responsible for surgical wound infections in patients operated on between July 1995 and June 2001. Overall, the isolates were inhibited by the antiseptics at concentrations below those used routinely. In spite of increasing resistance to the various antibiotics used to treat surgical wound infections, no significant variation in the susceptibility to antiseptics was demonstrated during this 6-year study.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/2002; 21(7):553-6. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infections of contaminated or colonised acute or chronic wounds remain a grave risk for patients even today. Despite modern surgical debridement concepts and antibiotics, a great need exists for new therapies in wound management. Since the late 1990s, advantageous effects of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) have been combined with local antiseptic wound cleansing in the development of NPWT with instillation (NPWTi). This article summarises the current scientific knowledge on this topic. MEDLINE literature searches were performed on the subject of negative pressure wound and instillation therapy covering publications from the years 1990 to 2013 (36 peer-reviewed citations) and regarding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) covering wound care with bone involvement (27 publications) or soft-tissue wounds without bone participation (11 publications) from 2005 to 2012. The use of NPWTi in the therapy of infected wounds appears to be not yet widespread, and literature is poor and inhomogeneous. However, some reports indicate an outstanding benefit of NPWTi for patients, using antiseptics such as polyhexanide (concentration 0·005-0·04%) and acetic acid (concentration 0·25-1%) in acute and chronic infected wounds and povidone-iodine (10% solution) as prophylaxis in contaminated wounds with potential viral infection. Soaking times are recommended to be 20 minutes each, using cycle frequencies of four to eight cycles per day. Additionally, the prophylactic use of NPWTi with these substances can be recommended in contaminated wounds that cannot be closed primarily with surgical means. Although first recommendations may be given currently, there is a great need for RCTs and multicentre studies to define evidence-based guidelines for an easier approach to reach the decision on how to use NPWTi.International Wound Journal 12/2013; 10(s1):32-42. · 1.60 Impact Factor