Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin to neonatal rats
ABSTRACT Domoic acid induces a time-dependent neuroexcitotoxic effect in neonatal rats characterized by hyperactivity, stereotypic scratching, convulsions, and death with observable behaviors occurring at exposures 40 times lower by body weight in neonates than reported in adults. Low doses of domoic acid (0.1 mg/kg) induced c-fos in the central nervous system which was inhibited in part by 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Domoic acid caused no evidence of structural alteration in the brain of neonates as assessed by Nissel staining and cupric silver histochemistry. Domoic acid induced reproducible behavioral effects at doses as low as 0.05 mg/kg and induced seizures doses as low as 0.2 mg/kg. Determination of serum domoic acid levels after 60 min exposure indicated that serum levels of domoic acid in the neonates corresponded closely to the serum levels that induce similar symptoms in adult rats and mice. We conclude that neonatal rats are highly sensitive to the neuroexcitatory and lethal effects of domoic acid and that the increased sensitivity results from higher than expected serum levels of domoic acid. These findings are consistent with other findings that reduced serum clearance of domoic acid is a predisposing factor to domoic acid toxicity.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to undertake the antitumor activity and possible mechanising of cytotoxic action of ascidian, mycalamide, onnamide, domoic acid (DOM) ana laurinterol compounds from various Sponge species. Also, It was assessed the affects of Cnidarian toxins on the voltage-gated ion channel and the antiproliferative activity against different tumor cell lines of tissue extracts from the two colour morphs. It was affirmed once again the antitumoral and cytotoxic effects of these marine compounds by courtesy of the scientific studies.
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ABSTRACT: Domoic acid (DA) is an environmental neurotoxin to humans. This work examines whether repeated exposure to subsymptomatic or symptomatic nonlethal doses of domoic acid leads to enhanced symptomatic toxicity in ICR outbred and DBA inbred strains of laboratory mice. A multiple independent exposure paradigm was designed in which doses were administered intraperitoneally every other day for 7 days to achieve four separate exposures to domoic acid. We first examined the effect of repeated exposure on serum clearance of domoic acid. Serum domoic acid levels did not differ following a single or repeated exposure. We next examined the effect of repeated exposure on symptomatic toxicity. The mean toxicity scores did not show a significant difference between single and repeated exposures of either subsymptomatic (0.5 mg/kg) or symptomatic sublethal (2.0 mg/kg) doses of domoic acid. We then examined the effects of repeated domoic acid exposure on a second strain of mouse. DBA mice were chosen based upon their sensitivity to kainic acid-induced seizures; however, the ICR mice were more sensitive to low-dose domoic acid toxicity, particularly in terms of onset and duration of stereotypic scratching behavior. Our results indicate that both strains of mice have comparable concentration-dependent toxic responses to domoic acid; however, differences exist in the magnitude of the response and in specific symptoms. The mean toxicity scores did not show a significant difference when a single exposure (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg domoic acid) and repeated exposure of the same dose were compared in the DBA mice. This study provides no evidence that short-term repeated exposure to domoic acid in laboratory mice alters domoic acid clearance from the serum, or leads to a more sensitive or a greater neurotoxic response.Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 11/1997; 40(1):63-67. DOI:10.1006/faat.1997.2360
Marine Mammal Science 02/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1111/mms.12117 · 1.82 Impact Factor