Bitter taste transduction of denatonium in the mudpuppy Necturus maculosus.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 06/1997; 17(10):3580-7.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bitter substances are a structurally diverse group of compounds that appear to act via several transduction mechanisms. The bitter-tasting denatonium ion has been proposed to act via two different G-protein-regulated pathways, one involving inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate and raised intracellular calcium levels, the other involving phosphodiesterase and membrane depolarization via a cyclic nucleotide-suppressible cation channel. The aim of the present study was to examine these transduction mechanisms in taste cells of the mudpuppy Necturus maculosus by calcium-imaging and whole-cell recording. Denatonium benzoate increased intracellular calcium levels and induced an outward current independently of extracellular calcium. The denatonium-induced increase in intracellular calcium was inhibited by U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, and by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium transport into intracellular stores. The denatonium-induced outward current was blocked by GDP-beta-S, a blocker of G-protein activation. Neither resting nor denatonium-induced intracellular calcium levels were affected by inhibition of phosphodiesterase (with IBMX) or adenylate cyclase (with SQ22536) or by raising intracellular cyclic nucleotides directly (with cell permeant analogs). Our results support the hypothesis that denatonium is transduced via a G-protein cascade involving phospholipase C, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and raised intracellular calcium levels. Our results do not support the hypothesis that denatonium is transduced via phosphodiesterase and cAMP.

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    ABSTRACT: Chloroquine (CQ), a bitter tasting drug widely used in treatment of malaria, is associated gastrointestinal side effects including nausea or diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CQ on electrolyte transport in rat ileum using the Ussing chamber technique. The results showed that CQ evoked an increase in short circuit current (ISC ) in rat ileum at lower concentration (≤5×10(-4) M ) but induced a decrease at higher concentrations (≥10(-3) M). These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin (TTX). Other bitter compounds, such as denatoniumbenzoate and quinine, exhibited similar effects. CQ-evoked increase in ISC was partly reduced by amiloride(10(-4) M), a blocker of epithelial Na(+) channels. Furosemide (10(-4) M), an inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+) -2Cl(-) co-transporter, also inhibited the increased ISC response to CQ, whereas another Cl(-) channel inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172(10(-5)M), had no effect. Intriguingly, CQ-evoked increases were almost completely abolished by niflumic acid (10(-4)M), a relatively specific Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) inhibitor. Furthermore, other CaCC inhibitors, such as DIDS and NPPB, also exhibited similar effects. CQ-induced increases in ISC were also abolished by thapsigargin(10(-6)M), a Ca(2+) pump inhibitor and in the absence of either Cl(-) or Ca(2+) from bathing solutions. Further studies demonstrated that T2R and CaCC-TMEM16A were colocalized in small intestinal epithelial cells and the T2R agonist CQ evoked an increase of intracelluar Ca(2+) in small intestinal epithelial cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CQ induces Cl (-) secretion in rat ileum through CaCC at low concentrations, suggesting a novel explanation for CQ-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during the treatment of malaria.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87627. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087627 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Denatonium, a widely used bitter agonist, activates bitter taste receptors on many cell types and plays important roles in chemical release, ciliary beating and smooth muscle relaxation through intracellular Ca2+-dependent pathways. However, the effects of denatonium on the proliferation of airway epithelial cells and on the integrity of cellular components such as mitochondria have not been studied. In this study, we hypothesize that denatonium might induce airway epithelial cell injury by damaging mitochondria.Methods Bright-field microscopy, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to examine cellular morphology, proliferation and cell cycle, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine mitochondrial integrity. JC-1 dye and western blotting techniques were used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential and protein expression, respectively.ResultsFor airway epithelial cells, we observed that denatonium significantly effects cellular morphology, decreases cell proliferation and reduces the number of cells in S phase in a dose-dependent manner. TEM analysis demonstrated that denatonium causes large amplitude swelling of mitochondria, which was confirmed by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein and the subsequent enhancement of the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO after denatonium treatment.Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that denatonium damages mitochondria and thus induces apoptosis in airway epithelial cells.
    Respiratory Research 02/2015; 16(1):13. DOI:10.1186/s12931-015-0183-9 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholipase C (PLC) and internal Ca(2+) stores are involved in a variety of cellular functions. However, our understanding of PLC in mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) is generally limited to its controversial role in odor transduction. Here we employed single-cell Ca(2+) imaging and molecular approaches to investigate PLC-mediated Ca(2+) responses and its isozyme gene transcript expression. We found that the pan-PLC activator m-3M3FBS (25 μM) induces intracellular Ca(2+) increases in vast majority of isolated mouse OSNs tested. Both the response amplitude and percent responding cells depend on m-3M3FBS concentrations. In contrast, the inactive analog o-3M3FBS fails to induce Ca(2+) responses. The m-3M3FBS-induced Ca(2+) increase is blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122, while its inactive analog U73433 has no effect. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) does not change significantly the m-3M3FBS-induced Ca(2+) response amplitude. Additionally, in the absence of external Ca(2+), we found that a subset of OSNs respond to an odorant mixture with small Ca(2+) increases, which are significantly suppressed by U73122. Furthermore, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that multiple PLC isozyme gene transcripts are expressed in olfactory turbinate tissue in various levels. Using RNA in situ hybridization analysis, we further show expression of β4, γ1, γ2 gene transcripts in OSNs. Taken together, our results establish that PLC isozymes are potent enzymes for mobilizing intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse OSNs and provide molecular insight for PLC isozymes-mediated complex cell signaling and regulation in the peripheral olfactory epithelium.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 10/2014; 8:336. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00336 · 4.18 Impact Factor

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