Effects of tamoxifen and interferon-beta or the combination on tumor-induced angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT Inhibition of angiogenesis by anti-tumor agents may play a role in tumor growth arrest. Tamoxifen and interferon-alpha/beta (IFN-alpha/beta) exhibit potentiated anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells. However, additional host-mediated effects such as modulation of angiogenesis may also inhibit tumor growth in vivo. The effect of tamoxifen and IFN-beta on angiogenesis induced by 2 human tumors, MCF-7 breast carcinoma (estradiol dependent) and NIH-OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma (estradiol independent), was assessed. Treatment of nude mice bearing MCF-7 tumors with tamoxifen resulted in a 68% decrease in the number of vessels at the tumor periphery. Treatment with IFN-beta yielded a 33% reduction. Treatment of nude mice bearing NIH-OVCAR-3 tumors with tamoxifen resulted in a 73% decrease in the number of vessels. Treatment with IFN-beta yielded a 57% reduction. Combination treatment resulted in augmented anti-angiogenic effects. As single agents, both tamoxifen and IFN-beta inhibited xenograft tumor growth. Ten weeks of tamoxifen treatment resulted in growth inhibition of MCF-7 and NIH-OVCAR-3 carcinomas by 85% and 66%, respectively. Ten weeks of IFN-beta treatment resulted in inhibition of growth of MCF-7 and NIH-OVCAR-3 carcinomas by 67% and 88%, respectively. The combination of tamoxifen and IFN-beta completely prevented growth of MCF-7 and NIH-OVCAR-3 carcinomas. The anti-angiogenic effects of tamoxifen and IFN-beta were additive. Inhibition of angiogenesis was detectable before measurable effects on tumor volume in both MCF-7 and NIH-OVCAR-3 tumors. Potentiation of anti-angiogenic effects by tamoxifen and IFN-beta, possibly resulting from enhanced IFN-induced gene expression, may contribute to anti-tumor activity in both estradiol-dependent and estradiol-independent tumors in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There is an impending need for noninvasive biomarkers of breast cancer angiogenesis to evaluate the efficacy of new anti-angiogenic therapies in vivo. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the sensitivity of in vivo steady-state susceptibility contrast-MRI biomarkers of angiogenesis in a human breast cancer model. METHODS: Orthotopic MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts were imaged by steady-state susceptibility contrast-MRI at post-inoculation week 3 and post-inoculation week 5, followed by ex vivo whole tumor 3D micro-CT angiography. "Absolute" (i.e., measures of vascular morphology in appropriate units) and "relative" (i.e., proportional to measures of vascular morphology) MRI biomarkers of tumor blood volume, vessel size, and vessel density were computed and their ability to predict the corresponding micro-CT analogs assessed using cross-validation analysis. RESULTS: All MRI biomarkers significantly correlated with their micro-CT analogs and were sensitive to the micro-CT-measured decreases in tumor blood volume and vessel density from post-inoculation week 3 to post-inoculation week 5. However, cross-validation analysis revealed there was no significant difference between the predictive accuracy of "absolute" and "relative" biomarkers. CONCLUSION: As "relative" biomarkers are more easily computed from steady-state susceptibility contrast-MRI (i.e., without additional MRI measurements) than "absolute" biomarkers, it makes them promising candidates for assessing breast cancer angiogenesis in vivo. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 12/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The retinoids and type I interferons constitute the 2 principal classes of biological response modifiers (BRMs) that have demonstrated activity in the treatment of malignant cerebral tumours, and are associated with fewer of the adverse effects induced by conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These BRMs share numerous common characteristics that may underlie their observed clinical efficacy. First, both classes of agent activate intracellular signal transduction pathways that, at numerous points, are capable of antagonising the oncogenic effects of growth factor-stimulated pathways in tumour cells. Secondly, the intracellular signals initiated by these BRMs ultimately lead to the activation of a multitude of genes; these genes, in turn, encode anti-tumourigenic functions that are distinct from the classic cytotoxic effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as the induction of differentiation and the inhibition of angiogenesis. Thirdly, while both classes of BRMs have demonstrated encouraging results in clinical trials when used as monotherapy, there is evidence that they may act synergistically when used in combination with each other or with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. With further refinements, the BRMs may develop into important adjunctive agents in the treatment of patients with malignant brain tumours.CNS Drugs 06/1998; 10(1):11-24. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IFNB1/interferon (IFN)-β belongs to the type I IFNs and exerts potent antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and immunemodulatory functions. Despite the beneficial effects of IFNB1 in experimental breast cancers, clinical translation has been disappointing, possibly due to induction of survival pathways leading to treatment resistance. Defects in autophagy, a conserved cellular degradation pathway, are implicated in numerous cancer diseases. Autophagy is induced in response to cancer therapies and can contribute to treatment resistance. While the type II IFN, IFNG, which in many aspects differs significantly from type I IFNs, can induce autophagy, no such function for any type I IFN has been reported. We show here that IFNB1 induces autophagy in MCF-7, MDAMB231 and SKBR3 breast cancer cells by measuring the turnover of two autophagic markers, MAP1LC3B/LC3 and SQSTM1/p62. The induction of autophagy in MCF-7 cells occurred upstream of the negative regulator of autophagy MTORC1, and autophagosome formation was dependent on the known core autophagy molecule ATG7 and the IFNB1 signaling molecule STAT1. Using siRNA-mediated silencing of several core autophagy molecules and STAT1, we provide evidence that IFNB1 mediates its antiproliferative effects independent of autophagy, while the proapoptotic function of IFNB1 was strongly enhanced in the absence of autophagy. This suggests that autophagy induced by IFNB1 promoted survival, which might contribute to tumor resistance against IFNB1 treatment. It may therefore be clinically relevant to reconcile a role for IFNB1 in the treatment of breast cancer with concomitant inhibition of autophagy.Autophagy 12/2012; 9(3). · 12.04 Impact Factor