Personality Trait Structure as a Human Universal

Personality, Stress, and Coping Section, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
American Psychologist (Impact Factor: 6.87). 06/1997; 52(5):509-16. DOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.52.5.509
Source: PubMed


Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal.

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Available from: Paul Costa, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "At a general level, extraversion has sometimes been conceptualized as a propensity toward reward-seeking (Cloninger, Przybeck, & Svrakic, 1991) and has thus been linked to ambition, competitiveness, exploration , and other pleasurable activities (Nettle, 2005). At the interpersonal level, extraversion is characterized by high levels of social engagement, surgency, energy, activity, gregariousness, and positive affect (John et al., 1991; McCrae & Costa, 1997). The interpersonal dimension of extraversion , however, is heterogeneous and includes both a nurturance/ love component (expressed for example, in romantic or parent–child relationships) and a reward-seeking component, which leads extraverted individuals to compete for social attention and social success as well as pursue novelty-and sensation-seeking in sexual relationships (Lukaszewski & von Rueden, 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the hypotheses that extraversion is associated with unrestricted sociosexuality (operationalized as greater sexual experience and greater short-term mating orientation) and that this association is mediated by reduced cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress. Study participants were heterosexual male college students (n = 109). Extraversion was assessed with the Big Five Inventory and sociosexuality was assessed with the Multidimensional Sociosexuality Orientation Inventory. Cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress was assessed via three saliva samples collected immediately before, immediately after, and 15 min after the Trier Social Stress Test. Extraversion was associated with greater sexual experience but not with greater short-term mating orientation. As predicted, more extraverted individuals showed a lower increase in cortisol in response to psychosocial stress than less extraverted individuals. Previous sexual experience and short-term mating orientation were negatively correlated with cortisol reactivity to stress. Finally, mediation analyses confirmed our hypothesis that cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is a mechanism mediating the association between extraversion and unrestricted sociosexuality. These findings have implications for our understanding of the benefits and costs of different personality traits as well as for our understanding of the determinants or correlates of individual differences in sociosexuality.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2015; 86:427-431. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.003 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "3. Personality traits and test validity The most commonly assessed personality attribute is that of the personality trait and while there are a variety of trait approaches, traits are generally seen as intra-individual 'temperament-like variables' (Matthews, Deary, & Whiteman, 2003; McCrae & Costa, 1995; McCrae et al., 2000). The identification of traits has been guided by the lexical approach to personality (traceable to Galton, Thurstone, and Cattell, amongst others—Digman, 1990; Goldberg, 1990; Matthews et al., 2003), utilising trait-term adjectives in language , as well as factor-analytic studies, to develop hierarchical models that identify higher level broad factors from clusters of lower level traits and specific acts (Eysenck, 1991, 1997; Goldberg, 1990; Matthews et al., 2003; McCrae & Costa, 1997). Traits are commonly considered latent variables that underlie differences in observable test performance—''a trait is not an observable attribute of an individual. "
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    ABSTRACT: Personality assessment helps us to predict how people behave under various circumstances or how well a person might perform within certain roles. However, there are reasons to question the supposed ‘construct validity’ of tests designed to assess various personality attributes including dispositional traits. To demonstrate this, the paper first discusses a realist account of test validity where validity requires that both the attribute exist and that changes in the attribute are causally related to changes in test scores. The paper demonstrates that the validity for tests of dispositional traits is questionable given conceptual problems with traits existing as within-person attributes capable of causing changes in test scores. The widespread reliance on Likert-style response formats is then discussed in relation to the assumed quantitative structure of personality attributes. Based on a realist view of measurement, the uncritical adoption of a representational theory of measurement within personality research means that the validity of all personality tests claiming to ‘measure’ personality attributes is questionable. Suggestions for addressing test validity in personality assessment are then discussed in terms of paying greater critical attention to personality theory itself and adopting a realist theory of assessment and measurement.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.039 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "Traits, in relation to personality are " the fairly consistent characteristics a person exhibits " (Daft, 2011, p. 413). Another research has defined traits as " relatively enduring styles of thinking, feeling, and acting " (McCrae and Costa, 1997, p. 509). Trait approach is one of the four major approaches used in leadership research, namely: the behavioral approach, the contingency approach and transactional vs. transformational leader approach (Vasu et al., 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to browse literature based on Aaker’s brand personality modal and highlight criticism on it. Furthermore, the study proposes an Islamic brand personality modal based on Islamic teachings. Design/methodology/approach – Extensive research on Muslim characteristics based on Qur’an, hadith and scholarly work of traditional and modern scholars has been used to assess Aaker’s model. Expert opinions of faculty members from relevant field are also taken into consideration to propose Islamic brand personality model. Findings – Aaker’s brand personality dimensions have been revised in the light of Islamic teachings. As a result, few pre-existing dimensions have been re-named and several new dimensions such as moral character and trustworthiness are also included. Research limitations/implications – Considering the gap found in literature, the need to conduct brand personality research in the service industry such as Islamic banks is highlighted. Practical implications – Islamic brand personality model may help marketers effectively differentiate Islamic brands such as Islamic banks. It may also reinforce advertising techniques/tools to attract a large Muslim consumer market. Originality/value – This paper is one of the early attempts to see brand personality from Islamic perspective.
    Journal of Islamic Marketing 09/2015; 6(3):388-405. DOI:10.1108/JIMA-10-2014-0068
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