Anti-HIV antibody in saliva: an assessment of the role of the components of saliva, testing methodologies and collection systems.
ABSTRACT The various components of saliva, namely mixed saliva, parotid saliva, submandibular saliva, crevicular fluid and minor (labial) gland secretions, were collected from 63 known HIV antibody seropositive patients. A commercial test system, Wellcozyme HIV 1+2, and an antibody capture ELISA (GACELISA), were compared for sensitivity against all components. Sensitivity of the GACELISA system was 100% in 123 mixed saliva, 121 parotid saliva and 127 labial fluid samples, and 98% in 99 submandibular samples and 127 crevicular fluid samples. Respective figures for Wellcozyme 1+2 were 92%, 55%, 73%, 66% and 63%. Mixed saliva was most easily, conveniently and effectively collected using a plain Salivette. In 241 Salivette samples examined from the 63 patients, GACELISA proved 100% sensitive, and Wellcozyme 95% sensitive. Another form of Salivette impregnated with citric acid was unsuitable for GACELISA and gave a false negative value of 45%. In 197 samples from the gingival margin taken by a dry swab, GACELISA showed a sensitivity of 98% and Wellcozyme 81%. The most sensitive method for demonstrating anti-HIV antibody in saliva is to collect mixed saliva with the plain Salivette system and assay anti-HIV antibody levels by GACELISA.
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ABSTRACT: Simple diagnostic tests are needed for the detection of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. Salivary antibody assays provide an attractive alternative to collecting and testing serum or stool samples. Antibodies to Norwalk virus (NV) in oral fluid samples were compared with NV antibodies in serum collected from 38 volunteers challenged with NV inoculum. Pre- and postchallenge (day 4, 8, 14, and 21) saliva and serum samples were examined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using recombinant NV antigen. Of 18 infected subjects (those who shed NV in stool or who demonstrated immunoglobulin G [IgG] seroconversion), 15 (83%) had > or =4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgA and 15 (83%) had > or =4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgG when prechallenge and postchallenge saliva samples were compared. When the results of the IgA and IgG assays were combined, all 18 infected subjects showed > or =4-fold increases in NV-specific salivary IgG or IgA postchallenge titers compared to their prechallenge titers. One of 19 uninfected subjects had a > or =4-fold increase in NV-specific salivary IgG. The sensitivity of the combined assay results was 100%, and the specificity was 95%. NV-specific salivary IgA titers peaked around 14 days postchallenge. NV-specific salivary IgG and serum IgG titers continued to rise through 21 days postchallenge. The application of this EIA to an elementary school outbreak indicated that 67% of the subjects with confirmed infections had >4-fold rises in anti-NoV IgA when an antigen in the same genetic cluster as the outbreak virus was used. This is the first documented mucosal antibody response to NoV in children. This EIA provides a useful approach for diagnosing NoV outbreaks.Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 11/2004; 11(6):1028-34. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Salivary antibody testing for HIV is proving to be a sensitive and specific procedure, especially useful for epidemiological studies, and has the advantages of being simple and non-invasive. This paper reviews the field and discusses antibody testing of dental patients.Oral Diseases 01/1998; 3(4):212-5. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the last thirty years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has matured. In the United States, HIV has changed from an explosive outbreak to an endemic disease; currently, an estimated 1.1 million people are infected with HIV, including a substantial number who are unaware of their status. With recent findings demonstrating the high transmissibility of HIV early in infection, and the potential benefit of early initiation of treatment, it is essential to identify as many infected individuals as possible. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has expanded HIV testing to include any healthcare setting, including dental offices. Testing advances, including oral testing, have reduced the window period of HIV infection. Dental care represents a key, reliable, independent, and confidential link between the healthcare system and the general population that has been under-utilized in the effort to control the HIV epidemic. HIV testing is straightforward, and knowledge of the types of testing will afford dentists an important opportunity to help advance and preserve the health of their patients and to promote the public health of their community. Here, we review the basics of HIV testing and discuss new changes in the approach to HIV diagnostics.Oral Diseases 11/2012; · 2.38 Impact Factor