Anti-HIV antibody in saliva: an assessment of the role of the components of saliva, testing methodologies and collection systems.
ABSTRACT The various components of saliva, namely mixed saliva, parotid saliva, submandibular saliva, crevicular fluid and minor (labial) gland secretions, were collected from 63 known HIV antibody seropositive patients. A commercial test system, Wellcozyme HIV 1+2, and an antibody capture ELISA (GACELISA), were compared for sensitivity against all components. Sensitivity of the GACELISA system was 100% in 123 mixed saliva, 121 parotid saliva and 127 labial fluid samples, and 98% in 99 submandibular samples and 127 crevicular fluid samples. Respective figures for Wellcozyme 1+2 were 92%, 55%, 73%, 66% and 63%. Mixed saliva was most easily, conveniently and effectively collected using a plain Salivette. In 241 Salivette samples examined from the 63 patients, GACELISA proved 100% sensitive, and Wellcozyme 95% sensitive. Another form of Salivette impregnated with citric acid was unsuitable for GACELISA and gave a false negative value of 45%. In 197 samples from the gingival margin taken by a dry swab, GACELISA showed a sensitivity of 98% and Wellcozyme 81%. The most sensitive method for demonstrating anti-HIV antibody in saliva is to collect mixed saliva with the plain Salivette system and assay anti-HIV antibody levels by GACELISA.
Article: HIV surveillance by testing saliva.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Saliva specimens were tested for HIV antibody (anti-HIV) by an immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody capture radioimmunoassay (GACRIA) and three sensitive commercial assays. In tests on 460 seronegative subjects and 196 seropositive subjects GACRIA was 99.8% specific and 100% sensitive. The Wellcome HIV monoclonal and Abbott recombinant DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were also highly specific (99.8%, 100%) but they were less sensitive (90.9%, 82.0%). The Fujirebio particle agglutination assay was sensitive (97.8%) but its specificity was poor (84.1%). In testing saliva specimens from populations with an anti-HIV prevalence greater than 0.5%, sampling by GACRIA alone could provide a good estimate of the true prevalence. For true prevalences less than 0.5% good estimates could only be obtained if positive GACRIA reactions were confirmed by another independent salivary assay. Salivary testing for anti HIV is a convenient and potentially an accurate epidemiological tool.AIDS 11/1988; 2(5):369-71. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methods are described for collecting constituents of mixed saliva, viz. parotid, submandibular, monor gland and sublingual saliva and gingival fluid. Literature is cited which showed that using these techniques, few antibiotics could be found in mixed saliva or its main components but all were detected in gingival fluid. Rifamicin and clindamycin were found in all components.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/1976; 3(2):315-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Whole saliva samples collected from available people at risk in Boston for infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III/LAV), from late 1984 through early 1985, were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to viral proteins. Fourteen of 20 (70%) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and 14 of 15 (93%) AIDS-related complex (ARC) patients had salivary antibodies that reacted with the virus-encoded glycoproteins gp160 and gp120 of HTLV-III infected cells. All of the AIDS and ARC patients had serum antibodies to the same antigens. Of 20 sex partners of AIDS/ARC patients, nine (45%) showed anti-HTLV-III antibodies, and four of 18 (22%) healthy homosexual males also were positive for such antibodies. Serum and salivary antibody status were the same in these groups. A minority of those patients positive for salivary antibodies to env gene-encoded gp160 and gp120 also had salivary antibodies to gag gene-encoded proteins of 55,000, 24,000, and/or 17,000 daltons. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) class antibodies comprised the majority of the salivary antibody response. The spectrum of HTLV-III proteins detected by the salivary and serum antibodies was similar. The possibility that secretory IgA from the gut-associated lymphoid system may play a role to restrict salivary transmission of HTLV-III should be considered.Blood 04/1986; 67(3):831-4. · 9.06 Impact Factor