Article

Human immunodeficiency virus infection modifies the natural history of chronic parenterally-acquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis.

Viral Hepatitis and AIDS Study Group, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Seville, Spain.
Journal of Hepatology (Impact Factor: 10.4). 02/1997; 26(1):1-5. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8278(97)80001-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the possible role of HIV infection in the natural history of chronic parenterally-acquired hepatitis C.
A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed in 547 patients with chronic parenterally-acquired hepatitis C with or without HIV infection (116 HIV-positive and 431 HIV-negative). Approximate duration of HCV infection was estimated in all patients included, and histologic diagnoses made at different time intervals following HCV infection were analyzed in both groups. Factors related to serum HCV-RNA levels were also investigated.
Histologic findings were similar in liver biopsies from both HIV-infected and noninfected patients. However, in the first 10 years, 13 out of 87 (14.9%) HIV-positive subjects developed cirrhosis, in comparison with 7 out of 272 (2.6%) in the HIV-negative group (p < 0.01). Similar results were found in the first 5 and 15 years, respectively, and most of the HIV-negative patients with cirrhosis (42 out of 56) developed cirrhosis in a time interval longer than 15 years. Consequently, mean interval from estimated time of HCV infection to cirrhosis was significantly longer in HIV-negative than HIV-positive patients (23.2 vs. 6.9 years; p < 0.001). Chronic active hepatitis (with and without cirrhosis) and long duration of HCV infection were significantly associated with higher HCV load (p < 0.05). Finally, HIV-positive patients with CD4+ cell counts > 500 cells/ml showed a lower HCV load than those with < 500 cells/ml (p < 0.05).
HIV infection modifies the natural history of chronic parenterally-acquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis. HIV-related immunodeficiency may be a determinant of higher hepatitis C viremia levels and more severe liver damage.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Luis Rodrigo-Saez, Jun 28, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
195 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Viral diversity is an important predictor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment response and may influence viral pathogenesis. HIV influences HCV variability in the plasma; however, limited data on viral variability are available from distinct tissue/cell compartments in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. Thus, this exploratory study evaluated diversity of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of HCV in the plasma and liver for 14 patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. Median intra-patient genetic distances and entropy values were similar in the plasma and liver compartments. Positive immune selection pressure was observed in the plasma for five individuals and in the liver for three individuals. Statistical evidence supporting viral compartmentalization was found in five individuals. Linear regression identified ALT (P = 0.0104) and AST (P = 0.0130) as predictors of viral compartmentalization. A total of 12 signature amino acids that distinguish liver from plasma E1/HVR1 were identified. One signature amino acid was shared by at least two individuals. These findings suggest that HCV compartmentalization is relatively common among patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. These data also imply that evaluating viral diversity, including drug resistance patterns, in the serum/plasma only may not adequately represent viruses replicating with in the liver and, thus, deserves careful consideration in future studies. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 08/2014; 86(8). DOI:10.1002/jmv.23968 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Understanding the predictors of mortality in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfection can be useful in management of these patients. Methods. We used the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES) for these analyses. Multivariate Cox-regression models were used to determine predictors of mortality. Results. Among 8,039 HIV infected veterans, 5251 (65.3%) had HCV coinfection. The all-cause mortality rate was 74.1 (70.4-77.9) per 1000 person-years (PY) among veterans with HIV/HCV coinfection and 39.8 (36.3-43.6) per 1000 PY for veterans with HIV monoinfection. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of all-cause mortality for HCV infection was 1.58 (1.36-1.84). Positive predictors of mortality included decompensated liver disease (2.33 (1.98-2.74)), coronary artery disease (1.74 (1.32-2.28)), chronic kidney disease (1.62 (1.36-1.92)), and anemia (1.58 (1.31-1.89)). Factors associated with reduced mortality included HCV treatment (0.41 (0.27-0.63)) and higher CD4 count (0.90 (0.87-0.93) per 100 cells/ μ L higher count). Data were insufficient to make informative analyses of the role of HCV virologic response. Conclusion. HCV coinfection was associated with substantial increased risk of mortality among HIV infected veterans. HCV treatment was associated with significantly lower risk of mortality.
    04/2014; 2014:764540. DOI:10.1155/2014/764540
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Liver fibrosis is accelerated in HIV and hepatitis C coinfection, mediated by profibrotic effects of angiotensin. The objective of this study was to determine if angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) attenuate liver fibrosis in coinfection. Methods. A retrospective review of 156 coinfected subjects was conducted to analyze the association between exposure to ACE-Is and liver fibrosis. Noninvasive indices of liver fibrosis (APRI, FIB-4, Forns indices) were compared between subjects who had taken ACE-Is and controls who had not taken them. Linear regression was used to evaluate ACE-I use as an independent predictor of fibrosis. Results. Subjects taking ACE-Is for three years were no different than controls on the APRI and the FIB-4 but had significantly higher scores than controls on the Forns index, indicating more advanced fibrosis. The use of ACE-Is for three years remained independently associated with an elevated Forns score when adjusted for age, race, and HIV viral load (P < 0.001). There were significant associations between all of the indices and significant fibrosis, as determined clinically and radiologically. Conclusions. There was not a protective association between angiotensin inhibition and liver fibrosis in coinfection. These noninvasive indices may be useful for ruling out significant fibrosis in coinfection.
    AIDS research and treatment 11/2012; 2012:978790. DOI:10.1155/2012/978790