Suomalainen, A. et al. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with multiple deletions of mtDNA: clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic features of the 10q-linked disease. Neurology 48, 1244−1253
Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by accumulation of multiple large deletions of mtDNA in patients' tissues. We previously showed that the disease is genetically heterogeneous by assigning two nuclear loci predisposing to mtDNA deletions: one on chromosome 10q 23.3-24.3 in a Finnish family and one on 3p 14.1-21.2 in three Italian families. To reveal any locus-specific disease features, we report here the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic characteristics of the 10q-linked disease in the single family reported to date. All seven patients and four asymptomatic subjects had ragged-red fibers and multiple deletions of mtDNA in their muscle. Ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia were the major clinical findings, and depression or avoidant personality traits were frequently, but not consistently, present in the subjects carrying mutant mtDNA. In six of the subjects with mutant mtDNA, the activities of the respiratory chain complexes I or IV, or both, were below or within the low normal range. Two autopsy studies revealed the characteristic distribution of mutant mtDNA in these patients: highest proportion of mutant mtDNA is found in different parts of the brain, followed by the skeletal and ocular muscle, and the heart.
"In contrast to the mutated forms of TWINKLE causing adPEO in humans or an mtDNA deletor phenotype in mice, a loss of TWINKLE does not cause accumulation of mtDNA deletions in tissue-specific knockout mice. AdPEO is a late-onset mitochondrial disease and the accumulation of deleted mtDNA molecules varies widely in different post-mitotic tissues collected from affected patients (19). Similarly, in the transgenic mtDNA deletor mouse model, mtDNA deletions were only detectable after 18 months of age (24), suggesting that deletions may be a consequence of age-associated decline of DNA repair mechanisms (32). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replication of the mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is dependent on the minimal replisome, consisting of the heterotrimeric mitochondrial DNA polymerase (POLG), the hexameric DNA helicase TWINKLE and the tetrameric single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB). TWINKLE has been shown to unwind DNA during the replication process and many disease-causing mutations have been mapped to its gene. Patients carrying Twinkle mutations develop multiple deletions of mtDNA, deficient respiratory chain function and neuromuscular symptoms. Despite its importance in human disease, it has been unclear whether TWINKLE is the only replicative DNA helicase in mammalian mitochondria. Furthermore, a substantial portion of mtDNA replication events is prematurely terminated at the end of mitochondrial control region (D-loop) and it is unknown whether TWINKLE also has a role in this abortive replication. Here we present a conditional mouse knockout for Twinkle and demonstrate that TWINKLE is essential for mouse embryonic development and thus is the only replicative DNA helicase in mammalian mitochondria. Conditional knockout of Twinkle results in severe and rapid mtDNA depletion in heart and skeletal muscle. No replication intermediates or deleted mtDNA molecules are observed after Twinkle knockout, suggesting that TWINKLE once loaded is very processive. We also demonstrate that TWINKLE is essential for nascent H-strand synthesis in the D-loop, thus showing that there is no separate DNA helicase responsible for replication of this region. Our data thus suggest that the relative levels of abortive D-loop synthesis versus complete mtDNA replication are regulated and may provide a mechanism to control progression to complete mtDNA replication.
Human Molecular Genetics 02/2013; 22(10). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddt051 · 6.39 Impact Factor
"20 wing imaginal discs from third instar larvae were dissected in 1X PBS. Cell dissociation of wing discs was performed as described previously  and incubated with 5 mM MitoSox in this medium for 10 min at 37°C in the dark. The cell suspension was analyzed by flow cytometry (BD Biosciences FACS Vantage SE) and data were processed with the BD FACS Diva and Cell Quest Pro software (Becton Dickinson). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human gene C10orf2 encodes the mitochondrial replicative DNA helicase Twinkle, mutations of which are responsible for a significant fraction of cases of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), a human mitochondrial disease caused by defects in intergenomic communication. We report the analysis of orthologous mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) helicase gene, d-mtDNA helicase. Increased expression of wild type d-mtDNA helicase using the UAS-GAL4 system leads to an increase in mtDNA copy number throughout adult life without any noteworthy phenotype, whereas overexpression of d-mtDNA helicase containing the K388A mutation in the helicase active site results in a severe depletion of mtDNA and a lethal phenotype. Overexpression of two d-mtDNA helicase variants equivalent to two human adPEO mutations shows differential effects. The A442P mutation exhibits a dominant negative effect similar to that of the active site mutant. In contrast, overexpression of d-mtDNA helicase containing the W441C mutation results in a slight decrease in mtDNA copy number during the third instar larval stage, and a moderate decrease in life span in the adult population. Overexpression of d-mtDNA helicase containing either the K388A or A442P mutations causes a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defect that significantly reduces cell proliferation. The mitochondrial impairment caused by these mutations promotes apoptosis, arguing that mitochondria regulate programmed cell death in Drosophila. Our study of d-mtDNA helicase overexpression provides a tractable Drosophila model for understanding the cellular and molecular effects of human adPEO mutations.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43954. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043954 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Personality disorders were also highly represented in the MT group, the most prevalent was avoidant personality. Avoidant personality traits have been described with mtDNA mutations . It possibly reflects the fact that some mitochondrial patients are symptomatic early in childhood predisposing them to peer rejection and its long-term psychological consequences. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA.
19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT) have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI), the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II) As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN), harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) mutation were examined with the same tools.
The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625) and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625). Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076). MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively). The Global Severity Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013) as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42%) had past, 6 (31%) had current, 5 (26%) had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47%) in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30%) in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%), yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group.
Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with mitochondrial mutation which has both etiologic and therapeutic relevance.
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