Reliability of a modified Medication Appropriateness Index in ambulatory older persons

School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy (Impact Factor: 2.06). 06/1997; 31(5):543-8.
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the reliability of a medication appropriateness index (MAI) modified for elderly outpatients in a non-Veterans Affairs setting.
Reliability study.
General community.
Ten community-dwelling elderly (> 65 y) taking five or more regularly scheduled medications and participating in a university-based health service intervention study.
Interrater reliability of MAI ratings of 65 medications made by two clinical pharmacists for individual items and for an overall summed score was calculated by use of kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient.
The interrater agreement for each of the individual MAI items was high for both appropriate and inappropriate ratings and ranged from 80% to 100% (overall kappa = 0.64). Overall agreement for the summed score was good (intraclass correlation = 0.80).
The modified MAI is a reliable instrument for evaluation of medication appropriateness in a non-Veterans Affairs, ambulatory, elderly population and may provide pharmacists with a practical and standard method to evaluate patients' drug regimens and identify some potential drug-related problems.

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    • "The medical record for every study patient was scrutinized systematically, by the same physician and research assistant throughout the study, according to the principles of MAI. Every drug was checked in accordance with the MAI routine on ten items regarding medication indication, effectiveness, dosage, directions, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, practicality, expense, duplication and duration [17,18]. This renders a weighted MAI score per drug ranging between 0 (good quality) and 18 (poor quality). "
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    ABSTRACT: Modern drugs have made large contributions to better health and quality of life. Increasing proportions of negative side effects due to extensive pharmacological treatment are however observed especially among elderly patients who have multiple health problems. The aim of our study was to see if there is an association between medication quality and quality of life. 150 patients discharged from hospital. Inclusion criteria were: living in ordinary homes, ≥ 75 years and ≥ 5 drugs. Home visits were performed to all, including prescription reviews and calculation of medication appropriateness index. The patients were divided into three groups depending on index score and followed for 12 months. The validated and recognized EQ-5D and EQ VAS instruments were used to assess quality of life. A lower medication quality was associated with a lower quality of life. EQ-5D index was statistically significantly different (declining for each group) among the groups (p = 0.001 at study start, p = 0.001 at 6 months and p = 0.013 at 12 months) as was EQ VAS (p = 0.026 at study start, p = 0.003 at 6 months and p = 0.007 at 12 months). This study has shown the validity of the basic principle in prescribing: the more appropriate medication the better quality of life. Since drug quality is related to the patients' quality of life, there is immense reason to continuously evaluate every prescription and treatment. The evaluation and if possible deprescribing should be done as a process where both the patient and physician are involved.
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced practice nurses' challenge in managing older adults' medication regimens from an evidence base is difficult because older adults are vulnerable to medication errors and adverse drug reactions related to a number of factors. Predicting patients' responses to drugs is compounded during critical illness, adding to the heterogeneity and unpredictability of drug effects that are prevalent premorbidly. In the first part of this 2-part continuing education series, sources of medication errors and older adults' vulnerability are discussed, including normal changes of aging affecting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, polypharmacy, self-medicating, patient-family noncompliance, and inappropriately prescribed medications. In the second part, drug classes and drugs posing particular problems for older adults and cautions for acute care and critical care nurses who manage the medications of older adults are highlighted.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Elderly persons may easily develop adverse drug effects. In Sweden, at least seven untested instruments are used for assessing pos- sible drug-related symptoms in elderly people. Aim. The aim was to develop a more valid and reliable instrument for identification of possible therapeutic drug-related symptoms. Methods. The seven pre-existing instruments consisted of 39 symptoms, which were coordinated and then analyzed for content validity. After revision, the instrument included 19 symptoms or symptom-groups and one open variable. To assess the construct validity and reliability, the new instrument, PHASE-20, was tested in a randomized controlled trial with elderly persons living in two nursing homes before and after evaluation and correction of their therapeutic drugs. Results. PHASE-20 was found to possess an acceptable consistency, test-retest reliability, and internal validity. Construct validity was not sup- ported in this study, as there were no significant differences between groups after the intervention. Therapeutic drug-related symptoms among elderly might be too heterogeneous to be captured into a screening instrument. However, PHASE-20 was welcomed by both patients and staff as a well structured, easily understandable, and useful assessment instrument. Conclusion. PHASE-20 can be used for identifying possible drug-related symptoms among elderly who are able to cooperate at least partly.
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