An open pilot study of citalopram for behavioral disturbances of dementia. Plasma levels and real-time observations.
ABSTRACT Citalopram, in European studies, has shown some early promise for treatment of poststroke depression and behavioral complications of dementia. An open pilot study of citalopram was conducted in 16 patients with dementia and behavioral disturbances. Citalopram was well tolerated by 13 of the patients, and 9 had a clinically impressive response. A significant overall mean reduction in disruptive vocalizations was observed by means of a novel technique of computer-assisted real-time observation. The mean citalopram plasma level-to-dose ratio was found to be twice that previously reported in younger patients. These pilot findings should encourage future placebo concentration-controlled trials.
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ABSTRACT: Until recently, conventional antipsychotics were the standard pharmacotherapy for psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the acute efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the neuroleptic perphenazine with placebo for the treatment of psychosis and behavioral disturbances in nondepressed patients with dementia. Eighty-five hospitalized patients with at least one moderate to severe target symptom (aggression, agitation, hostility, suspiciousness, hallucinations, or delusions) were randomly assigned to receive either citalopram, perphenazine, or placebo under double-blind conditions for up to 17 days. Patients treated with citalopram or perphenazine showed statistically significant improvement on several Neurobehavioral Rating Scale factor scores. Compared to those receiving placebo, only patients treated with citalopram showed significantly greater improvement in their total Neurobehavioral Rating Scale score as well as in the scores for the agitation/aggression and lability/tension factors. Side effect scores were similar among the three treatment groups. Citalopram was found to be more efficacious than placebo in the short-term hospital treatment of psychotic symptoms and behavioral disturbances in nondepressed, demented patients.American Journal of Psychiatry 04/2002; 159(3):460-5. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.460 · 13.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Agitation is one of the most devastating behavioral symptoms in demented patients but there is little evidence about effective and safe pharmacotherapy. We aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of mirtazapine in treatment of agitated patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The consecutive patients with AD who have significant agitation were assigned to a 12-week open-label, prospective study. Patients received mirtazapine 15-30 mg/day. The changes in Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Short form (CMAI-SF) scores were primary outcome measurement. The change in Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S) scores and tolerability-safety profile were the secondary efficacy variables. Thirteen of 16 (81.25%) patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in CMAI-SF and CGI-S between the pre- and post-treatment with mirtzapaine (p < 0.001). The mean baseline score was 26.54 ( +/- 5.4) and mean reduction was 10.6 ( +/- 7.5) in CMAI-SF. There was no significant side effect and cognitive deterioration. The results of this open-label pilot study suggest that mirtazapine may be an effective choice for treatment of agitated patients with AD.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 10/2008; 4(5):963-6. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S3201 · 2.15 Impact Factor