Time trends in obesity: An epidemiological perspective
ABSTRACT The average prevalence of obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) among European centers participating in the WHO-MONICA study between 1983 and 1986 was about 15% in men and 22% in women Prevalence figures ranged in men from 7% in Gothenburg and 22% in Lithuania and in women from 9% to 45% in the same places. Some monitoring projects or repeated surveys suggest that the prevalence of obesity has been increasing during the past 15 years in some European countries. A closer look at data from The Netherlands suggest that average weight increase in the order of about 1 kilo can be responsible for quite dramatic increases in the prevalence of obesity. This suggest that only small changes in the daily caloric balance may be sufficient to increase the number of obese subjects in populations. In The Netherlands a decrease in energy intake and fat consumption was observed between 1987 and 1993 and smoking rates remained relatively stable. This could imply that reductions in energy expenditure are the main factors responsible for the increase in the prevalence of obesity. Since the increase in the prevalence of obesity seems to occur particularly in younger age-groups, the consequences of the increase in the prevalence of obesity only become apparent many years later. Especially chronic conditions such as arthritis or conditions related to obesity but occurring later in life such as cerebrovascular accidents, chronic heart failure or breast cancer in women. The rising prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus may be one of the first signs of the increasing problem of obesity in European countries.
- SourceAvailable from: Motohiko Miyachi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study of Japanese men and women, we determine reference values for sarcopenia and test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of waist circumference. A total of 1,488 Japanese men and women aged 18-85 years participated in this study. Appendicular muscle mass (AMM) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reference values for classes 1 and 2 sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index: AMM/height2, kg m-2) in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of reference values obtained in this study from young adults aged 18-40 years. The reference values for class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were 7.77 and 6.87 kg m-2 in men and 6.12 and 5.46 kg m-2 in women. In subjects both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia, body mass index and % body fat were significantly lower than in normal subjects. Despite whole-blood glycohaemoglobin A1c in men with class 1 sarcopenia was significantly higher than in normal subjects, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in women both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were significantly higher than in normal subjects, using one-way ANCOVA with adjustment for the covariate of waist circumference. Although sarcopenia is associated with thin body mass, it is associated with more glycation of serum proteins in men and with greater arterial stiffness in women, independent of waist circumference.Arbeitsphysiologie 04/2010; 110(1):57-65. DOI:10.1007/s00421-010-1473-z · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is growing concern with the increasing prevalence of obesity in industrialised countries, a trend that is more apparent in the poor than in the rich. In an ecological study, the relationship between an area measure of socioeconomic status (SES) and the density of fast-food outlets was examined as one possible explanation for the phenomenon. It was found that there was a dose-response between SES and the density of fast-food outlets, with people living in areas from the poorest SES category having 2.5 times the exposure to outlets than people in the wealthiest category. The findings are discussed.Health & Place 07/2002; 8(2):141-5. DOI:10.1016/S1353-8292(01)00028-4 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to estimate the prevalence of obesity and central obesity, and their association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Canarian community of Guía. Population-based study. A random sample of 691 subjects over 30 y old (stratified by age and sex) was studied. DATA AND MEASURES: Age, sex, family history of diabetes and medication use were obtained, height, weight and waist circumference were measured and standard oral glucose tolerance tests were performed The prevalences of obesity/central obesity were 36.5%/66.5% (women) and 23.6%/32.0% (men). The prevalence of diabetes was 21.0% (women) and 18.4% (men). These rank among the highest in Europe. Bivariate analyses show a strong association of both obesity and central obesity with diabetes mellitus (P<0.001), but in a multivariate model, waist circumference (P<0.001) but not body mass index (P=0.212) was retained as an independent predictor of diabetes. The prevalences of obesity, central obesity and diabetes in our community are extremely high, and central obesity is a better predictor of diabetes than obesity.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2002; 56(6):557-60. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601401 · 2.95 Impact Factor