Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domestic Dog

Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 07/1997; 276(5319):1687-9. DOI: 10.1126/science.276.5319.1687
Source: PubMed


Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were analyzed from 162 wolves at 27 localities worldwide and from 140 domestic
dogs representing 67 breeds. Sequences from both dogs and wolves showed considerable diversity and supported the hypothesis
that wolves were the ancestors of dogs. Most dog sequences belonged to a divergent monophyletic clade sharing no sequences
with wolves. The sequence divergence within this clade suggested that dogs originated more than 100,000 years before the present.
Associations of dog haplotypes with other wolf lineages indicated episodes of admixture between wolves and dogs. Repeated
genetic exchange between dog and wolf populations may have been an important source of variation for artificial selection.

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    • "To be sure, following this innovation, there were no doubt developments that favored the selection of those individuals carrying a genetic disposition to be cooperative and interested in others. In addition, it should not be surprising that pets, especially dogs, who have been cohabitating with humans for some 100,000 years or so (Vila et all 1997), have also been subject to a similar selectional process that they have developed an interest in the other, in this case humans. Searle also adds the crucial point that before people can act in bad faith, which is the foundation for deceit, there has to be a foundation of good faith. "
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    DESCRIPTION: Despite wars and other types of violence, humans interact with one another most of the time nonviolently.
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    • "Different ranges of mtDNA sequencing and molecular clocks used in these studies have provided a wide range of time estimates. Some studies suggested that dogs diverged from wolves about 100 kya [2], whereas others gave a time frame of 5 $ 16 kya [13]. In contrast, recent studies based on the comparison of complete mitochondrial genome variability of modern dogs with that of archaeological materials obtained from extinct wolf-like and dog-like specimens indicated that wolf domestication took place in Europe, about 19 $ 32 kya [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To contribute to the complete mitogenome database of the species Canis lupus familiaris and shed more light on its origin, we have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of 120 modern dogs from worldwide populations. Together with all the previously published mitogenome sequences of acceptable quality, we have reconstructed a global phylogenetic tree of 555 C. l. familiaris mitogenomes and standardized haplogroup nomenclature. The phylogenetic tree presented here and available online at could be further used by forensic and evolutionary geneticists as well cynologists, for data quality control and unambiguous haplogroup classification. Our in-depth phylogeographic analysis of all C. l. familiaris mitogenomes confirmed that domestic dogs may have originated in East Asia during the Mesolithic and Upper Paleolithic time periods and started to expand to other parts of the world during Neolithic times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 07/2015; 19:123-129. DOI:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.06.014 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    • "The place of origin has been claimed to be the Middle East (Gray et al., 2011; Wayne, 2012), Europe (Wayne, 2012; Thalmann et al., 2013), and southeastern Asia (Savolainen et al., 2002; Ardalan et al., 2011; Ding et al., 2011). The time estimates vary from hundreds of thousands of years (Vila et al., 1997) to less than 10 kya (Thalmann et al., 2013). Notably, the oldest estimates are of the gray Wolf-Dog split, not domestication per se. "

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