Phase I trial of the SPf66 malaria vaccine in a malaria-experienced population in Southeast Asia.
ABSTRACT In preparation for a recently reported, independent field trial of SPf66 malaria vaccine efficacy in Thailand, we first established the safety and immunogenicity of two clinical lots of U.S. manufactured lots of SPf66 in a series of overlapping Phase I studies. The vaccine was produced in approved laboratories using good manufacturing practices. Two clinical lots of alum-adsorbed SPf66 were evaluated in a combined, open-label, Phase I clinical trial involving 50 healthy, malaria-experienced Karen adults and children. Volunteers were grouped by age and immunized sequentially. Group 1 had 30 adults. Group 2 had 10 children 8-15 years of age, and Group 3 had 10 children 2-6 years of age. The SPf66 vaccine was well tolerated in this malaria-experienced population. The most common side effects were erythema, induration, warmth, and tenderness at the site of injection, which typically resolved within 24-48 hr. One adult volunteer developed an acute urticarial rash following the third dose. Among adults, and to a lesser extent older children females had more local reactions than their male counterparts. Seroconversion to SPf66 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay occurred in 76% of volunteers receiving two or three doses. This vaccine was safe and immunogenic in malaria-experienced Karen adults and children. This study establishes the comparability of U.S.-manufactured SPf66 with that of Colombian origin, and is important for interpreting the efficacy results of U.S.-manufactured SPf66 in the same study population.
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ABSTRACT: Given the emerging difficulties with malaria drug resistance and vector control, as well as the persistent lack of an effective vaccine, new malaria vaccine development strategies are needed. We used a novel methodology to synthesize and fully characterize multiple antigen peptide (MAP) conjugates containing protective epitopes from Plasmodium falciparum and evaluated their immunogenicity in four different strains of mice. A di-epitope MAP (T3-T1) containing two T-cell epitopes of liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1), a di-epitope MAP containing T-cell epitopes from LSA-1 and from merozoite surface protein-1, and a tri-epitope MAP (T3-CS-T1) containing T3-T1 and a potent B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein central repeat region were tested in this study. Mice of all four strains produced peptide-specific antibodies; however, the magnitude of the humoral response indicated strong genetic restriction between the different strains of mice. Anti-MAP antibodies recognized stage-specific proteins on the malaria parasites in an immunofluorescence assay. In addition, serum from hybrid BALB/cJ x A/J CAF1 mice that had been immunized with the tri-epitope MAP T3-CS-T1 successfully inhibited the malaria sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cells in vitro. Spleen cells from immunized mice also showed a genetically restricted cellular immune response when stimulated with the immunogen in vitro. This study indicates that well-characterized MAPs combining solid-phase synthesis and conjugation chemistries are potent immunogens and that this approach can be utilized for the development of subunit vaccines.Infection and Immunity 09/2001; 69(8):4884-90. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical symptoms of mixed-species malaria infections have been variously reported as both less severe and more severe than those of single-species infections. Oral temperatures were taken from and blood slides were prepared for 2308 adults who presented at outpatient malaria clinics in Tak Province (Thailand) during May-August 1998, May-July 1999, and May-June 2001 with malaria infections diagnosed by 2 expert research microscopists, each of whom was blinded to the other's reports. In each year, temperatures of patients with mixed Plasmodium vivax-Plasmodium falciparum infections were higher than temperatures of patients with P. vivax or P. falciparum infections. In every mixed-species case, P. falciparum parasitemia was higher than P. vivax parasitemia, but patient temperature was not correlated with the parasitemia of either species or with the total parasitemia. Among adults who self-report to malaria clinics in western Thailand, patients with mixed P. vivax-P. falciparum infections have higher fevers than patients with single-species infections, a distinction that cannot be attributed to differences in parasitemia. This observation warrants more detailed investigations, spanning wider ranges of ages and transmission environments.Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2006; 42(12):1713-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We analyzed point-prevalence data from 19 recent studies of human populations in which either Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax co-occur with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. Although the only statistical interactions among, sympatric congeners are pairwise, the frequencies of mixed-species infections relative to standard hypotheses of species sampling independence show no strong relation to overall malaria prevalence. The striking difference between the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. ovale and the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. vivax data is that the first typically shows a statistical surplus of mixed-species infections and the second a deficit. This suggests that the number of Plasmodium species present in a human population may be less important in determining the frequencies of mixed-species infections than is the identity of those species.Journal of Parasitology 03/1999; 85(1):12-8. · 1.32 Impact Factor