Clinical experience with the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implant in eyes with prior or concurrent penetrating keratoplasties.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implant, an aqueous shunting device with a unidirectional valve mechanism, in eyes with concurrent or prior penetrating keratoplasties.
Thirty-one eyes of 31 consecutive patients had placement of an Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implant. Median patient age was 65.1 years (range, 17.2 to 103.4 years). The main outcome measure was time after surgery without failure. Success was defined as no additional glaucoma surgeries or devastating visual complications, no new corneal graft failure, an intraocular pressure greater than or equal to 5 mm Hg on the last two follow-up examinations, and reduction in intraocular pressure. For eyes with preoperative intraocular pressure greater than 22 mm Hg, an average intraocular pressure of less than 22 mm Hg on the last two follow-up examinations was required. For eyes with preoperative intraocular pressure of less than 22 mm Hg, an intraocular pressure lowered by at least 20% from preoperative values was required.
Cumulative probabilities of success at 12 and 20 months (mean +/- SD) were 75.4% +/- 8.2% and 51.5% +/- 11.4%, respectively. Eleven of 31 eyes were failures. The risk of failure in eyes with prior infectious keratitis or keratouveitis was estimated to be 5.8 times greater than that associated with eyes that underwent penetrating keratoplasties for other reasons (P = .009).
Twelve- and 20-month success rates of the implant in eyes with prior or concurrent penetrating keratoplasties were comparable to those of other drainage devices. Eyes with prior infectious keratitis or keratouveitis were at increased risk of failure.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether a combination of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) or pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation affords a level of success similar to that of AGV implantation alone. Eighteen eyes underwent simultaneous PPV and AGV, 14 eyes with PKP and AGV and 30 eyes with AGV implantation alone were evaluated. Success was defined as attainment of an intraocular pressure (IOP) >5 and <22 mmHg, with or without use of anti-glaucoma medication. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare cumulative survival between the combined surgery groups and the AGV implantation-alone group. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to identify factors predictive of success in each of the three groups. Mean (±standard deviation) preoperative IOP was 30.2 ± 10.2 mmHg in the PKP + AGV, 35.2 ± 9.8 mmHg in the PPV + AGV, and 36.2 ± 10.1 mmHg in the AGV implantation-alone group. The cumulative success rate at 18 months was 66.9%, 73.2%, and 70.8% in the three groups, respectively. Neither combined surgery group differed significantly in terms of cumulative success rate compared with the AGV implantation-alone group (p = 0.556, p = 0.487, respectively). The mean number of preoperative anti-glaucoma medications prescribed was significantly associated with success in the PKP + AGV implantation group (hazard ratio, 2.942; p = 0.024). Either PKP or PPV performed in conjunction with AGV implantation afforded similar success rates compared to patients treated with AGV implantation alone. Therefore, in patients with refractory glaucoma who have underlying corneal or retinal pathology requiring treatment with PKP or PPV, AGV implantation can be performed simultaneously.Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 12/2012; 26(6):432-7.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To analyze the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal graft survival after implantation of Ahmed glaucoma device (AGD) in eyes that had high-risk penetrating keratoplasty (PK). METHODS:: This is a retrospective noncomparative case series of 59 eyes that had high-risk PK and underwent AGD insertion. The primary outcome measures are the control of IOP between 6 and 21 mm Hg and corneal graft survival. The secondary outcome measures are risk factors associated with IOP control and corneal graft survival. RESULTS:: The mean IOP reduced significantly after the AGD procedure (26.45 ± 6.8 mm Hg preoperatively vs. 16.85 ± 7.4 mm Hg, 16.95 ± 4.6 mm Hg, 17.97 ± 5.7 mm Hg, 15.78 ± 5.2 mm Hg, and 15.59 ± 5.5 mm Hg, at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and at the last follow-up postoperatively; P < 0.0001). Over a median follow-up of 78 months (range, 9-175 months) after AGD insertion, IOP control was successful in 44 eyes (75.8%). IOP control was successful in 96% of the eyes at 1 year, 87% at 2 years, 83% at 3 years, and 83% at 5 years. The percentage of clear corneal grafts after 1, 2, 3, and 5 years following the AGD insertion were 87%, 77%, 65%, and 47%, respectively. Further surgery after AGD insertion was associated with 1.79 times greater risk of failure of IOP control. CONCLUSIONS:: AGD was effective in controlling the IOP associated with high-risk PK over a 5-year period. Postvalve surgery doubles the risk of failure of IOP control.Cornea 04/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To compare the intermediate-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control and complication profile of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implanted posteriorly through the pars plana in eyes undergoing concurrent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with device implantation in the anterior chamber (AC) in nonvitrectomized eyes. METHODS:: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 31 case eyes (30 patients) with refractory glaucoma that underwent posterior implantation of AGV after complete PPV and compared them to 31 control eyes (31 patients) with refractory glaucoma that underwent implantation of AGV in the AC. Case-control patients were matched one-to-one on the basis of principal glaucoma diagnosis. All surgeries were performed at 1 institution using a silicone-plate device. Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP)≥5 mm Hg and ≤21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications at final follow-up, no additional glaucoma surgery, no removal of the implant, and no loss of light perception. RESULTS:: The average follow-up was 20.9 months (range, 6 to 54 mo) for the posterior group and 20.5 months (range, 4 to 48 mo) for the anterior group. The reduction in IOP was similar in both groups at all postoperative time points. The number of postoperative glaucoma medications in both groups was not statistically different at final follow-up. Success rates at final follow-up were identical, 83.9% in both groups, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P=0.96). Postoperative complications were similar between the 2 groups, except there were more instances of early postoperative flat AC in the anterior group than the posterior group (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS:: The AGV can similarly control IOP in the majority of cases, whether the tube is placed in the posterior segment after PPV or in the AC of nonvitrectomized eyes.Journal of glaucoma 08/2012; · 1.74 Impact Factor