Article

Cyclin D1/Cdk4 regulates retinoblastoma protein-mediated cell cycle arrest by site-specific phosphorylation.

Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (Impact Factor: 4.55). 03/1997; 8(2):287-301. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.8.2.287
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) inhibits progression through the cell cycle. Although pRb is phosphorylated when G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are active, the mechanisms underlying pRb regulation are unknown. In vitro phosphorylation by cyclin D1/Cdk4 leads to inactivation of pRb in a microinjection-based in vivo cell cycle assay. In contrast, phosphorylation of pRb by Cdk2 or Cdk3 in complexes with A- or E-type cyclins is not sufficient to inactivate pRb function in this assay, despite extensive phosphorylation and conversion to a slowly migrating "hyperphosphorylated form." The differential effects of phosphorylation on pRb function coincide with modification of distinct sets of sites. Serine 795 is phosphorylated efficiently by Cdk4, even in the absence of an intact LXCXE motif in cyclin D, but not by Cdk2 or Cdk3. Mutation of serine 795 to alanine prevents pRb inactivation by Cdk4 phosphorylation in the microinjection assay. This study identifies a residue whose phosphorylation is critical for inactivation of pRb-mediated growth suppression, and it indicates that hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of pRb are not necessarily synonymous.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: David W Goodrich, Feb 04, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
114 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The small GTPase H-Ras is a proto-oncogene that activates a variety of different pathways including the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. H-Ras is mutated in many human malignancies, and these mutations cause the protein to be constitutively active. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 kDa (PEA-15) blocks ERK-dependent gene transcription and inhibits proliferation by sequestering ERK in the cytoplasm. We therefore investigated whether PEA-15 influences H-Ras-mediated transformation. We found that PEA-15 does not block H-Ras-activated proliferation when H-Ras is constitutively active. We show instead that in H-Ras-transformed mouse kidney epithelial cells, co-expression of PEA-15 resulted in enhanced soft agar colony growth and increased tumor growth in vivo. Overexpression of both H-Ras and PEA-15 resulted in accelerated G1/S cell cycle transition and increased activation of the ERK signaling pathway. PEA-15 mediated these effects through activation of its binding partner phospholipase D1 (PLD1). Inhibition of PLD1 or interference with PEA-15/PLD1 binding blocked PEA-15's ability to increase ERK activation. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which PEA-15 positively regulates Ras/ERK signaling and increases the proliferation of H-Ras-transformed epithelial cells through enhanced PLD1 expression and activation. Thus, our work provides a surprising mechanism by which PEA-15 augments H-Ras-driven transformation. These data reveal that PEA-15 not only suppresses ERK signaling and tumorigenesis but also alternatively enhances tumorigenesis in the context of active Ras.
    Oncogene 11/2011; 31(30):3547-60. DOI:10.1038/onc.2011.514 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-cyclin D/retinoblastoma (pRb)/E2F cascade, which controls the G1/S transition of cell cycle, has been found to be altered in many neoplasias. Inhibition of this pathway by using, for example, selective Cdk4 inhibitors has been suggested to be a promising approach for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that appropriately radiolabeled Cdk4 inhibitors are suitable probes for tumor imaging and may be helpful studying cell proliferation processes in vivo by positron emission tomography. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological, biochemical, and radiopharmacological characterizations of two (124)I-labeled small molecule Cdk4 inhibitors (8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-7-one (CKIA) and 8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-2-yl-amino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (CKIB)). Our data demonstrate a defined and specific inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through CKIA and CKIB by inhibition of the Cdk4/pRb/E2F pathway emphasizing potential therapeutic benefit of CKIA and CKIB. Furthermore, radiopharmacological properties of [(124)I]CKIA and [(124)I]CKIB observed in human tumor cells are promising prerequisites for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies.
    Journal of Oncology 02/2009; 2009:106378. DOI:10.1155/2009/106378
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To understand the relationship between permanent cell cycle exit and differentiation the immortalized keratinocyte cell line, SIK and the squamous cell carcinoma, SCC9 were compared during differentiation induced by anchorage-deprivation. The SIK cells when placed in suspension culture promptly lost almost all ability to reinitiate growth by 2 days concomitantly expressing the differentiation specific proteins, transglutaminase (TGK) and involucrin. These cells rapidly underwent G1 cell cycle arrest with complete disappearance of phosphorylated RB. In contrast SCC9 cells neither showed TGK expression nor increase in involucrin. They decreased their colony-forming ability much more slowly, which coordinated well with a gradual decrease in phosphorylated RB, demonstrating the significant resistance to loss of colony-forming ability and cell cycle exit. In accordance, cyclin D1, a positive regulator of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 which phosphorylates RB decreased drastically in anchorage deprived SIK but not in SCC9 cells. Endogenous cyclin D1 knockdown in SCC9 cells by siRNA enhanced loss of the colony-forming ability during anchorage-deprivation. Conversely enforced expression of cyclin D1 in SIK cells and in another immortalized keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, partly prevented loss of their colony-forming abilities. Cyclin D1 overexpression antagonized Keratin 10 expression in suspended HaCaT cells. The result demonstrates the importance of cyclin D1 down regulation for proper initiation of keratinocyte differentiation.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/2009; 106(1):63-72. DOI:10.1002/jcb.21978 · 3.37 Impact Factor