An abnormal signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG) has predictive value for arrhythmic events in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and a normal conduction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a complete bundle branch block (BBB) affects prognostic information of the SAECG. We prospectively obtained SAECGs in 128 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Forty-three of them had BBB and 85 had a normal QRS duration. According to their clinical history and results of ventricular programmed stimulation, patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) group IA with BBB and ventricular tachycardia (VT) (n = 18); (2) group IB with BBB but without VT (n = 25); (3) group IIA without BBB but with VT (n = 40); (4) group IIB without BBB and without VT (n = 45). Patients were compared with 129 patients without heart disease and without VT. Fifty-seven of them had BBB (group III) and 72 had normal conduction (group IV). The filtered QRS duration was longer in group IB than in group III (175 +/- 21 vs 149 +/- 16 ms, p <0.001), and in group IIB than in group IV (111 +/- 19 vs 96 +/- 12 ms, p <0.05). QRS duration was similar in groups IA and IB (176 +/- 24 vs 175 +/- 21 ms) but longer in group IIA than in group IIB (131 +/- 24 vs 111 +/- 19 ms, p <0.001). The low-amplitude signal duration (LAS) and the root-mean-square voltage (RMS) of the last 40 ms of the filtered QRS did not differ between groups IB and III and IA and IB. LAS and RMS were, respectively, longer (44 +/- 20 vs 31 +/- 13 ms, p <0.01) and lower (21 +/- 20 vs 43 +/- 33 microV, p <0.001) in groups IIA and IIB. In groups IA and IB the combination of 2 of the 3 available criteria: QRS duration >170 ms, RMS <20 microV, LAS >45 ms lead up to the best overall statistical result, with a sensitivity and specificity of 78% and 56%, respectively. In groups IIA and IIB, using conventional late potential criteria, the sensitivity and specificity of the SAECG for VT detection were 65% and 73%, respectively. The risk of sudden death was not predicted by the SAECG, and total cardiac mortality was only dependent on left ventricular ejection fraction. In conclusion, QRS duration was prolonged in all of the patients with a dilated cardiomyopathy compared with those without heart disease. BBB did not change the sensitivity but decreased the specificity of the SAECG to predict any VT risk in dilated cardiomyopathy. The risk of sudden death and total cardiac mortality could not be predicted by the SAECG.
"An abnormal result on SAECG may be a marker of increased risk of sustained ventricular tachycardia or death [43,44]. As such, the SAECG appears to have an excellent negative predictive value, with the caveat that the presence of bundle branch block may significantly decrease the specificity of SAECG . However, the poor positive predictive value for arrhythmic events and decreased specificity in the significant number of patients with bundle branch block lessens the value of this test. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is a disorder of myocardium. It has varying etiologies. Albeit the varying etiologies of this heart muscle disorder, it presents with symptoms of heart failure, and rarely as sudden cardiac death (SCD). Manifestations of this disorder are in many ways similar to its counterpart, ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). A proportion of patients with NIDCM carries a grave prognosis and is prone to sudden cardiac death from sustained ventricular arrhythmias. Identification of this subgroup of patients who carry the risk of sudden cardiac death despite adequate medical management is a challenge. Yet another method is a blanket treatment of patients with this disorder with anti arrhythmic medications or anti tachyarrhythmia devices like implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). However this modality of treatment could be a costly exercise even for affluent economies. In this review we try to analyze the existing data of risk stratification of NIDCM and its clinical implications in practice.
Indian pacing and electrophysiology journal 02/2005; 5(2):122-38.
"Some studies suggest that an abnormal signal averaged ECG predicts sustained ventricular tachycardia but not prognosis  while others have suggested it predicts an increased risk of worsening heart failure  . The presence of bundle branch block appears to detract from the little prognostic value that late potentials have in chronic heart failure    . QT dispersion is another proposed method of stratifying risk in chronic heart failure, although this cannot be evaluated properly in atrial fibrillation or bundle branch block. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study proposes a wavelet transform based technique to assess the beat-to-beat variation of the QRS signal in post-myocardial infarction patients with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Recent electrophysiological investigations suggested that the diminished synchrony between the normal myocardium and the scarred arrhythmogenic tissue bordering a myocardial infarction area gives rise to beat-variable ECG signal components. Using a mathematical model of small variations in a largely repetitive waveform, we show that the inherent alignment errors (trigger jitter) of the high-resolution ECG (HRECG) can artificially increase the value of the time-domain beat-to-beat variance, making it less valuable as a marker of beat-variable signal components. To overcome this drawback, we propose the wavelet based approach which discriminates between the different factors responsible for the beat variability (the alignment error and the beat-variable signal components). The Morlet wavelet transform is performed on HRECG signals from normal individuals (control group) and postmyocardial infarction patients with documented ventricular tachycardia. Electrical variability is quantitatively assessed via the beat-to-beat wavelet variance measurements. A marker of arrhythmogenic induced variance which achieves a good performance in discrimination of ventricular tachycardia patients from normal subjects was found between 200 Hz and 300 Hz. This finding is in agreement with the proposed mathematical model which states that the useful part of the time-frequency map is shifted upward in a precise mathematical way, as the variance induced by the beat-variable arrhythmogenic signals depend on the frequency characteristics of the first derivative of these signals. We conclude that the dynamics of the arrhythmogenic substrate as revealed by the beat-to-beat wavelet variance can be a new estimator of ventricular tachycardia risk.
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