Artifactual signet-ring-like cells in endoscopic biopsy of gastric lymphoma.
ABSTRACT To describe the morphologic characteristics of neoplastic lymphocytes with shrinkage artifact of cytoplasm secondary to formalin fixation and/or necrosis, which simulate carcinoma signet-ring cells in endoscopic biopsy.
Sixty-eight endoscopic biopsies with gastric lymphoma were studied retrospectively. We selected those biopsies in which artifactual signet-ring-like cells were the main histologic feature and were confused with adenocarcinoma. Mucin stains were performed on all specimens. To support their B-cell phenotype, immunohistochemical study with leukocyte common antigen (CD45), pan B-cell marker L26, keratin, and carcinoembryonic antigens were performed. The diagnosis of gastric lymphoma was confirmed in gastrectomy specimens.
The distinction between poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma in endoscopic biopsies is sometimes difficult owing to the morphologic similarities that these neoplasias can share and the small amount of tissue obtained by this technique. An additional factor that may contribute to this confusion is the presence of artifactual lymphocytes resembling signet-ring cells.
Three (4%) of the 68 biopsies showed artifactual lymphocytes in most or all the tissue fragments that resembled carcinoma signet-ring cells. These biopsies showed massive substitution of gastric glands by lymphomatous infiltrate. Crush artifact of neoplastic lymphocytes was observed in many fields. Necrosis, inflammation, and epithelial erosion were prominent findings. Mucin stains were negative, and immunohistochemical studies were positive for leukocyte common antigen and B-cell marker L26 in two of the three cases.
We conclude that if a poorly differentiated neoplasm consistent with signet ring adenocarcinoma is found in an endoscopic biopsy with artifactual changes, the diagnosis of gastric lymphoma must be excluded using histochemical and immunohistochemical studies.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of different types of clear cells and of the mite Demodex in the nipple-areola complex of adult autopsies of both sexes not suffering from breast cancer was studied in a total of 140 nipples. The epidermis of the nipple-areola complex shows squamous cells and 3 types of clear cells: Toker cells, pagetoid dyskeratosis cells, and signet ring-like cells. Toker cells were identified by standard light microscopy in 13 of 140 nipples (9.3%). Reactivity of these cells for CK7 was observed in 35 nipples (25%). They are derived from the lactiferous duct epithelium. Pagetoid dyskeratosis cells were identified in 56 of 140 nipples (40%). In 12 nipples, these cells were conspicuous (8.6%). It is suggested that the proliferation of these cells is induced by friction. Signet ring-like cells were identified in 71 nipples (50.7%). In 2 nipples, these cells were conspicuous (1.4%). They are a consequence of artefact related to formalin fixation. The prevalence of all these clear cells has no relationship with gender. Routine histopathological examination is usually enough to distinguish the characteristic features of the clear cells involving the nipple epidermis and permits differentiation of other entities with epidermal pale cells. Demodex mites were observed in 58 nipple-areola complexes (41.4%). They were more common in male nipple-areola complexes (P < 0.05). The prevalence of these mites was seen to remain steady along the years since the third decade. Demodex mites are common parasites of human nipple and are apparently of no pathologic significance.The American Journal of dermatopathology 12/2010; 32(8):787-93. DOI:10.1097/DAD.0b013e3181ddbec5 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe 5 patients (mean age, 50 years; all had uterine bleeding) whose routine endometrial biopsy and curettage specimens contained prominent signet-ring cells. Each specimen contained loose aggregates of signet-ring cells scattered within the endometrial stroma that were characterized by peripherally displaced, small, uniform nuclei with indistinct nucleoli and showed no mitotic activity. The central portion of the cytoplasm was occupied by single or multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles. In all cases, the signet-ring cells were reactive for vimentin and negative for epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin. Four cases were focally positive for muscle-specific actin or smooth muscle actin and negative for CD68, Mac387, periodic acid-Schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue. In these 4 cases, the surrounding endometrial stroma showed decidual changes, and the signet-ring cells demonstrated a morphologic continuum with more typical decidualized stroma. As such, the signet-ring cells in these cases were vacuolated, decidualized endometrial stromal cells. In the remaining case, the vacuolar contents of the signet-ring cells were periodic acid-Schiff-positive and resistant to diastase predigestion, and the cells reacted with Mac387 and CD68. The surrounding stroma showed no decidual reaction. Thus, the signet-ring cells in this case were of histiocytic differentiation. Endometrial stroma occasionally may contain nonneoplastic signet-ring cells that closely mimic adenocarcinoma. At least 2 directions of differentiation, decidual and histiocytic, are possible.American Journal of Clinical Pathology 03/2001; 115(2):249-55. DOI:10.1309/RL5H-VC5D-9WE2-X71H · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As a rule, endocervical tumours with signet-ring cell are classed as metastatic extra-genital neoplasms. In a patient aged 45 years, we describe primary cervical signet-ring cell carcinoma (PCSRCC) characterized by prominent endometrial and myometrial involvement, simulating primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension. In addition, a review was made of the literature to identify the clinical and pathological features of this rare malignancy. A 45-year-old woman was referred to our Gynaecology Department due to persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed slight endometrial irregularities in the whole uterine cavity suggestive of endometrial neoplasms. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse enlargement of the cervix, which had been replaced by a mass. Induration extended to the parametria and sigmoid colon fat.Histological examination of endometrial curettage and a cervical biopsy revealed a neoplasm characterized by neoplastic signet-ring cells and trabecular structures. Immunohistochemical analysis and molecular studies showed certain findings consistent with a cervical neoplasm, such as positivity to CEA, keratin 7, Ca-125 and p16 and the presence of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) DNA 18.On examination of the hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, the lesion replacing the cervix, endometrium and myometrium, revealed the same immunohistochemical findings observed on endometrial curettage and cervical biopsy specimens. Metastases were found in an ovarian cystic lesion and the lymph nodes. With this report the authors have demonstrated that the spread of cervical adenocarcinoma to the uterine corpus, although rare, may be observed, and that in this instance immunohistochemical and molecular studies can provide sufficient information for accurate diagnosis even on small biopsy specimens.World Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2012; 10:7. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-10-7 · 1.20 Impact Factor